Translated from the Headlines （Toutiao 头条新闻）
Author: Brother Flower Cat 731（花猫哥哥731）
1 The birth rate has dropped sharply
On November 20, according to the latest China Statistical Yearbook 2021, the national birth rate in 2020 was 8.52‰, dropping below 1% for the first time, setting a new low since 1978.
In the same period, the natural population growth rate (birth rate-death rate) of the country was only 1.45‰, which was also a record low since 1978.
According to the yearbook, compared with 2019, the national population will increase by 2.04 million in 2020, while the increase in the previous year was as high as 4.67 million, and in 2018 it also increased by 5.3 million.
The population issue instantly became a hot topic of public opinion. On November 20, the birth rate of China’s population fell below 1% and rushed into the hot search on Weibo.
So, how to solve the serious problem of the sharp drop in the birth rate?
I searched the Internet for related topics, and to be honest, I saw all kinds of “prescriptions” prescribed by many people, and I think they are not very reliable.
The sharp drop in the birth rate is not a social problem in China, but a common social problem in all developed countries. As long as it is a developed country with an urbanization rate of more than 70%, the birth rate will drop steadily.
The birth rate in the United States has fallen below 1.2%, and Europe is slightly better. The birth rate is about 1.6%, which is far below the 2.2% standard to maintain non-negative population growth. Asia is even lower, generally around 1.3%, and South Korea has even dropped to 0.8% recently.
Regarding the decline in the birth rate, the governments of various countries have also thought of a lot of measures including the introduction of various policies to encourage childbirth, and the increase in childcare subsidies, but the effect is not very good.
Therefore, in the end, Europe can only solve the population problem by introducing immigrants. However, the introduction of more immigrants will cause more social problems. Serious class antagonism has appeared in the United States and Europe, causing irreparable rifts in the entire society.
China’s current urbanization rate exceeds 60%, and by 2030, my country’s urbanization rate will exceed 70%. The birth rate has now fallen below 1. As the urbanization rate increases, the birth rate will definitely continue to decline in the future.
Therefore, I am more pessimistic about the future population issue. There is a high probability that China will not be able to solve the population problem that all developed countries in the world cannot solve.
However, the Chinese government is preparing to challenge this world-class problem.
2 Chinese government’s response strategy
Since the beginning of this year, with the release of the 7 general data, the Chinese government has vigorously introduced a series of policies-including full implementation of the three-child policy, cracking down on extracurricular tutoring, double reduction of education, criticism of 996, the separation of education functions from real estate, and non-speculation of housing to curb housing prices, Expansion of the scope of centralized procurement of medicine.
Simply put, the Chinese government is promoting three measures in the field of people’s livelihood: de-capitalization of education, de-financialization of real estate, and de-marketization of medicine.
Such a resolute three-go policy, to put it plainly, is to clear the obstacles to increasing the fertility rate. Therefore, a friend said with a smile at the dinner table a few days ago-the policy is now very clear, whether it is an individual, a company, or an industry, who If you stop the people from having children, whoever will be unlucky.
However, even if we spend huge economic pains to completely achieve the three goals of housing, education, and medical care, can we really increase the birth rate?
I still have questions about this.
A typical case in Singapore.
Singapore has done well in the fields of housing, education, medical care, and other livelihoods. Singapore’s housing management model is even a model for our country to learn. Even so, the current birth rate in Singapore is only 1.3%!
Cities are born with a powerful contraceptive function. As long as young people enter the city and settle down, their willingness to give birth will drop drastically. Governments all over the world cannot solve this problem.
So, is the declining birth rate really an unsolvable problem?
One of the characteristics of China is its vast territory, and the gap between urban and rural areas and between regions is very obvious. This unbalanced economic development is a huge problem in social governance most of the time.
However, misfortunes depend on blessings, and blessings fall for misfortunes. It is precisely this unbalanced economic development that provides an opportunity to solve the population problem.
For example, the introduction of policies to encourage childbirth and the direct provision of various financial subsidies for childcare may not be effective in large cities. Because the cost of raising children in big cities is too high, no matter how the government introduces subsidies, it is a drop in the bucket compared with the huge cost of raising children.
But what about the relatively backward small counties and rural areas?
Appropriate economic incentives may have a huge impact on the willingness of local women to give birth!
Don’t forget that there are still 600 million people in our country who earn only about 1,000 yuan a month!
3 Pilot breakthrough
On September 22, 2021, a significant pilot project for encouraging childbirth quietly kicked off in Linze County, Zhangye, Gansu Province.
Linze County issued the “Implementation Opinions on Optimizing the Fertility Policy of Linze County to Promote the Long-term Balanced Development of the Population (for Trial Implementation)”, which integrates childbearing, nurturing, and education into consideration, and the related supporting policies are very strong.
(Source: The Paper)
One is maternity allowance.
Give it when you have a baby. Linze County will give birth allowances of 2,000 yuan, 3,000 yuan, and 5,000 yuan to permanent residents of Linze who give birth to one, two, and three children in public medical institutions in the jurisdiction.
The second is parenting allowance.
A childcare allowance of 5,000 yuan per year for the second child and 10,000 yuan per year for the third child until the child reaches the age of three. Linze resident families who are enrolled in public kindergartens in the jurisdiction are given 1,000 yuan per student per school year for the second child, and 2,000 yuan per year per student for the third child.
The third is subsidies for buying houses.
Linze County grants a government subsidy of 40,000 yuan to residents with permanent residence in Linze who have two or three children when buying commercial housing in the city, and purchases in central market towns, Tunquan towns, Danxia Kangyang village, and other concentrated residential areas A government subsidy of 30,000 yuan will be given for commercial housing. When renting public rental housing, priority is given to families that meet the housing security requirements and have minor children.
This “Opinion” is simple and clear. Money is given when you have a baby. The more you give birth, the more money you will get!
The above-mentioned subsidies may not be felt by people in big cities, but for small counties like Linze County, they are quite different.
According to the official website of Linze County Government, in 2019, the per capita monthly income of county residents was roughly 2,000 yuan, and the per capita monthly income of rural residents was roughly 1,200 yuan. Also in 2019, the per capita monthly consumption expenditure of urban residents in the county was 1,500 yuan. The monthly consumption expenditure of residents is 1,000 yuan.
I probably do the math. If a family in Linze County has three children, the total amount of subsidies will be about 100,000 yuan. This is not a big number in big cities, but compared with the above income and consumption expenditure, In Linze County, it is equivalent to the income of county residents for 4 years, and the income of rural residents for 8 years!
Housing prices in Linze County are just over 3,000, and township housing prices are even lower. 100,000 yuan is almost enough for the down payment for a 90-square-meter commercial house; if you don’t buy a house, you can get 4-8 years of income from having a child. As a fertility incentive, this strength should be considerable.
Gansu Province is a poor province. It depends on the strong support of the central government to ensure the wages and operations of the grassroots government every year. Linze County is even a poor county with annual revenue of only 400 million yuan.
Assuming that there are 10,000 local families responding to the call for three births in this trial, and the maternity subsidy alone will cost 1 billion yuan, it is obvious that the local government will definitely not be able to spend this amount of money.
So, who will pay the money?
Only the central treasury can provide this funding.
This is the significance of piloting economic incentives for childbirth in a small county in an economically underdeveloped area. If you give birth incentives to hundreds of thousands in large cities, you may not be able to achieve good results, and the amount of subsidies is too large to afford the finances. In underdeveloped counties and rural areas, it is possible to achieve immediate results with 100,000.
After all, there are still 600 million people in China whose monthly income is only about 1,000 yuan. If a three-child family spends 100,000 yuan to stimulate childbirth, a relatively small financial cost can make a difference.
I roughly calculated it. If economic incentives are used to stimulate childbirth, the subsidy for each three-child family is calculated at 100,000. Every year, my country adds millions of newborn babies, and the central government’s expenditure is about hundreds of billions (because 100,000 is a cent. Three-year expenditure), in order to ensure that our population hardly lands, this price is also worth it.
In the past, in small counties and rural areas where the economy was underdeveloped, family planning was the most strictly controlled. If there was a serious over-birth phenomenon in the local area, the main cadres would definitely vote against it.
This is because, in the case of economic backwardness and lack of relevant supporting policies, a large number of children born in poor rural areas often become problematic children with malnutrition and lack of education. These problematic children will not only hardly become the population of the country and society in the future. Dividends, on the contrary, maybe a burden on the entire society.
However, in recent years, my country’s poverty alleviation project has been very well done. Basically, all impoverished counties across the country have taken off their hats, and the poor have basically realized the three guarantees. Not only there is no problem with food and clothing, but also education and medical care are guaranteed.
Our universities at all levels (including famous top universities) also have special plans to directly allocate a number of places to economically underdeveloped areas. Not only do tuition fees, accommodation fees, and cabbage prices but also green interest-free loans for poor students.
Therefore, it is no problem to have a large number of children in poverty-stricken areas.
The government provides living allowances for infancy before the age of three, and kindergartens are GSP kindergartens (in the future, they may even be free for second- and third-born babies). Children from elementary schools will receive free compulsory education and can be admitted to prestigious schools on a pro-rata basis. Even if a child only has a 50% probability of being admitted to college, if three students are born, the probability of at least one going to college is 87.5%.
Note: I’ve been thinking about a question recently. In the past, poverty alleviation work in our country has always been carried out in an orderly manner. However, the speed has suddenly increased since 2016. The government has invested huge resources and put a lot of effort into poverty alleviation projects. Work has a certain impact.
By 2020, we will basically achieve complete poverty alleviation. Without this foundation, it is impossible to experiment with economic stimulus in poverty-stricken areas.
So, does the poverty alleviation project that began to accelerate in 2016 have foreseen that the country can only solve the fertility problem in backward areas in the future?
Imagine that there are still 600 million people in our country whose per capita monthly income is only 1,000 yuan. If the enthusiasm for the fertility of this 600 million population base is mobilized, it is not too difficult to increase our country’s comprehensive fertility rate to 1.8%.
If this is the case, it would be too far-sighted to be breathtaking!
Therefore, the population problem is an unsolvable problem in highly urbanized developed countries. Even in China, it is unsolvable from the perspective of a big city.
You ran to Beijing and Shanghai today and told urban wage earners that the third child award was 100,000, and that the child was enrolled in compulsory education. People would definitely scold you and say how 100,000 children are enough. This kind of living allowance allows them to live a carefree life before they consider having children.
The crowds in big cities have such high demands, and the government finances cannot satisfy them anyway! Even developed countries with a per capita GDP of tens of thousands of US dollars cannot afford all the costs of raising children for urban populations, let alone China with a per capita GDP of only 10,000 US dollars!
How to do it?
The idea of solving the problem is to collect money from developed areas and transfer payments to poor areas to help people over there have more children.
Take a look at Linze County. The monthly living expenses of county residents are only 1,500 yuan, and in rural areas, it is even only 1,000 yuan. Coupled with vigorous education, medical care, and housing policies, the cost of raising children is much lower!
4 Common prosperity
In addition to the population problem, another theme recently is common prosperity.
Encouraging fertility and common prosperity seem to be two themes. Recently, I have been pondering over them slowly. In the final analysis, these two themes may be the same theme or the pros and cons of a coin.
At present, there are about 400 million middle-income groups in my country and about 1 billion low-income groups. According to the national plan, my country is about to use 15 years to convert 400 million people out of the 1 billion low-income groups into middle-income groups.
So here comes the problem!
In the future, which of these 1 billion people will be lucky enough to become 400 million people across classes?
I think the high probability is the people in poverty-stricken areas who actively respond to the state’s call for three births.
Common prosperity means that the country actively promotes income distribution and allows the rich to pay more. A considerable part of this money is transferred to the poor, encouraging them to have more children and raise more children.
In the past, poverty-stricken areas were generally in a vicious circle of becoming poorer and poorer. In the future, poor areas may be a positive cycle of becoming richer and richer.
Families in developed areas rely on raising fewer children and participating in social wealth distribution through good education, while families in poor areas directly rely on more numbers to allow children to participate in social wealth distribution—anyway, my country’s future education is also a rule Long manages to the end, even children from poor families can receive a better education.
If my country really has a middle-income group of 800 million people in the future, not only will my country’s social structure change from a pyramid structure to an olive structure, but the society will also be more harmonious.
More importantly, 800 million middle-income people are guaranteed and the internal economic cycle can be established. China will become the world’s largest consumer market without any suspense, leaving the United States far behind, and my country has the right to speak internationally. Greatly enhanced.
5 True Great Wisdom
Finally, there is another question. Will it be impossible for people in developed areas to collect money and transfer payments to backward areas to encourage childbirth?
In fact, in the long run, this transfer payment model of encouraging children in backward areas will also benefit people in developed areas.
the reason is simple.
People in underdeveloped areas have more children to participate in the distribution of social wealth, but also pay more social security and medical insurance. This money will be given to everyone in the future to provide pensions for reimbursement of medical expenses for the elderly.
In the past, part of the income from developed areas was transferred to underdeveloped areas to give birth to children, and these children would be provided for you in 20 to 30 years. Wealth took a big turn and returned to everyone’s pockets. Therefore, the experiment of encouraging childbirth in Linze County, Gansu is of great significance.
After several rounds of trials, the state will sum up its experience, improve the details, and come up with a more comprehensive and detailed transfer payment plan, which will be fully promoted in backward areas to encourage people in these areas to have more children, so that my country’s cliff-like fertility rate will be fundamentally reduced. The reverse.
Looking back on some of the country’s macro policies in recent years, sometimes I feel really emotional.
If a country puts the interests of the people first and adheres to the original intention of putting people first, it may pay the price of short-term economic benefits, but in the long run, the gains really outweigh the losses.
For example, in recent years, the Chinese government has desperately carried out poverty alleviation projects, which has laid a solid foundation for today’s birth stimulus policies in poverty-stricken areas;
For example, for the sudden outbreak of the new crown epidemic in 2020, the country will not hesitate to shut down the national economy and completely eliminate the epidemic. As a result, China has become the only paradise where the new crown epidemic is raging in the world. Far more than the price paid by the economic shutdown in the first quarter of last year.
Looking back at these histories, think again about the central government’s repeated slogans of not forgetting the original intention, putting people first, and so on. At that time, it sounded a bit propaganda. Looking back a few years later, it really is the thought of great wisdom!
Relying on this kind of great wisdom and thinking, we can realize the systematic governance of the country, so that the problems of poverty alleviation, transfer payments, encouragement of birth, common prosperity, economic internal circulation, social security, and old-age care will form a set of interlocking and logical responses. Plan.
The central authorities have the authority, courage, and more patience to implement this system plan. Only by working hard for ten or twenty years can the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation be realized.
For related reading, please search the public account [Cat Brother’s Vision]:
- “Why did the property tax come? 》
- “Common prosperity is a very big game of chess”
- “Complicated population problems: Will China’s family planning policy be adjusted? 》
Translated from the Headlines （Toutiao 头条新闻）
Author: Understand the planet（ 细说科技）
In the United States in the 1990s, there was a case in which someone bought hot coffee from McDonald’s and drank it in the car, and accidentally spilled it and burned himself. As a result, millions of dollars in compensation were raised.
There have been rumors about this incident on the Chinese Internet, but it is unavoidable to spread it from time to time. Because a cup of hot coffee pays millions of dollars in compensation, what is going on here? What are the misinformations on the Chinese Internet? What are the key details in this case that have been overlooked?
▲McDonald’s hot coffee poured a lot of dollars
(1) A cup of hot coffee that is almost life-threatening
1992 was the 37th year that McDonald’s was founded and the second year it opened in Mainland China. At that time, McDonald’s coffee could circle the earth four or five times.
On February 27 of this year, Stella Ribek, a 79-year-old woman living in Albuquerque, New Mexico, was letting her grandson drive on her own in her own van. The north wind was bleak and the weather was dry. She wanted to drink something hot to warm her body. She happened to see a McDonald’s fast restaurant for motorists on the road, so she bought a cup of hot coffee worth 49 cents at this restaurant.
Before he retired, Rebecq was a cashier in a supermarket. He was used to sitting at the front desk to collect money. This restaurant does not need to get off the bus. Just need Rebecq to sit in the co-pilot and give money to McDonald’s colleagues.
After the purchase, Ribek’s grandson drove the car to a parking lot to make it easier for grandma to add milk powder and sugar to the coffee.
It stands to reason that there should be a place for drinks in the RV, but Ribek’s co-driver does not have a place, so she can only put the coffee between her legs and open the lid to add milk powder.
As for the elderly, her actions were a bit sluggish, and there was no flash when she was careless, and the coffee fell on her legs and seat without being firmly clamped. If it’s iced coffee in summer, Ribek will cool down at the bottom of his crotch.
But this is a cup of hot coffee with a temperature close to boiling water. Not only did the pants that Ribek wore did not act as a barrier, but instead absorbed the high-temperature liquid, it aggravated the damage to her. If you are a young man, he should bounce up from his seat and take off his pants. Acting quickly can greatly reduce the damage, but the 79-year-old must not be able to stop the loss in time.
The sudden situation frightened Ribek’s grandson and was unable to deal with the scene effectively, so she had to drive her to the hospital quickly. The metabolism of the elderly is slow, and the skin is sagging and dry. This cup of coffee directly caused “third-degree burns” to her inner thighs and groin, which accounted for 6% of her body area. In addition, 10% of her skin was slightly burned, which was once life-threatening.
Fortunately, the hospital’s technology was in place, and she successfully escaped after 8 days, and the wound healed after two months. However, the old man was unable to restore his skin on his own, so he had to undergo multiple skin grafting operations. After two years of treatment, he gradually recovered his ability to take care of himself.
The accident was a huge physical and psychological shock to the old woman, and the loss of money and money was enough. Although Ribek’s family helped her buy medical insurance, and she also has medical subsidies for people over 65 years old arranged by the federal government, but multiple treatments + skin grafts caused her family to pay an additional $160,000 in medical expenses and other expenses.
(2) Is the shop bullying customers or making trouble unreasonably?
The 160,000 US dollars in the 1990s was not a small amount. The US dollars at that time were quite valuable, unlike today’s US nuclear-powered money printing machines that gradually turned US bills into waste paper.
The more Ribek thinks about it, the more he loses. He thinks that McDonald’s sells me such hot coffee. Isn’t it just making small money and killing you? So I decided to file a complaint against McDonald’s for damages but felt that I accidentally overturned the coffee and had to carry a part of the pot. I was embarrassed to ask for too much, so I asked for a medical fee of 11,000 US dollars.
McDonald’s was pleased to see this request, and I sold you hot coffee with me, and watched you drink it safely without burning yourself? Then I’ll sell you a hamburger, and watch you don’t choke to death by swallowing it? And didn’t I use a small print on the cup to remind me of the temperature?
McDonald’s directly rejected this request, expressing regret that you were scalded by the coffee in our shop, but after all, this coffee was overturned by yourself. We can’t afford it because of the blame, so we can give it to you from the perspective of sympathy. 800 dollars for condolences.
Ribek’s daughter was angry when she heard it. My mother was almost scalded to death by your coffee. Explain to me, what is condolences? Immediately wrote a passionate letter of complaint, proposing to increase the compensation cost to 20,000 U.S. dollars. But McDonald’s still only agreed to pay 800 US dollars in compensation and refused to accept you to go to the court to sue me.
As the American people who fall in love with the streets, walk and demonstrate when nothing is wrong, the Ribek family wants to carry the battle for rights to the end. Someone came to deliver pillows during this sleepiness. Rebeck’s daughter was looking for a law firm to sue McDonald’s. She happened to meet a lawyer, Reed Morgan, who had fought against McDonald’s in court.
This lawyer previously helped a client who was also scalded by McDonald’s hot coffee to go to court with McDonald’s, and finally reached an out-of-court settlement. McDonald’s paid the plaintiff US$20,000 in damages, which can be said to be an experienced “death lawyer.”
After Morgan learned about the case, he said that this case was on my body. He is well aware that US law requires consumers to request compensation for infringement and damages, and they need to prove that the product is defective.
The fault of McDonald’s coffee is that the coffee is too hot, which can easily burn people. But is not easy to find a basis in law. After all, it is not a product quality issue. Therefore, it is necessary to find a breakthrough from the “loopholes” in the production and sale of coffee at McDonald’s.
Morgan investigated the temperature of coffee produced by McDonald’s and other coffee shops and fast-food restaurants and finally found strong evidence. It turns out that McDonald’s chain stores and franchise stores follow a uniform standard for making coffee: the temperature of the coffee delivered to the customer should be 180 degrees Fahrenheit-190 degrees (equivalent to 82 degrees Celsius-86 degrees), which is very hot after thinking about it. of.
Although many other coffee shops sell coffee at a higher temperature, it is still about 30 degrees Fahrenheit (65-70 degrees Celsius) lower than McDonald’s.
After discovering the secret of temperature, Morgan found a professional medical appraisal agency and asked them to verify the fact that a cup of liquid at 180-190 degrees Fahrenheit is enough to cause third-degree burns on the skin in 12-15 seconds. And if the temperature is 160 degrees Fahrenheit, it will take 20 seconds to produce the same result.
In cold weather, a few more seconds can not only allow the person to deal with it in time but also make the coffee cooler, so as to avoid harm as much as possible.
After collecting sufficient evidence, Morgan represented Ribek in a lawsuit in a district court in New Mexico, accusing McDonald’s coffee of “manufacturing defects” and “unreasonable danger”, and requesting McDonald’s compensation of US$90,000.
It is necessary to talk about the civil procedure in the United States. The plaintiff filed a lawsuit with the court. When the court accepts a case, it usually does not hold a trial directly. Instead, it will go through a pre-trial procedure. According to the plaintiff’s petition, the two parties can settle or mediate. If the mediation fails, the trial will be officially opened. Go to a lot of procedural workloads.
In the pre-trial mediation session, McDonald’s said that I would not pay for 20,000 and also said 90,000? Refuse. Morgan said you don’t want to face, right? I want 300,000. A mediator saw that the situation was getting tenser and tenser, and said that both sides took a step back and set a price of 225,000? McDonald’s said it was impossible. Then we can only see the conclusion of the formal hearing.
(3) Can the plaintiff win the case?
After this serious injury, Libek said emotionally before the trial: I am not suing for the other party to pay how much money, but hope that McDonald’s can lower the temperature of the hot coffee so that no one will encounter this kind of injury in the future.
In fact, according to previous experience in similar cases, the plaintiff will lose the case in most cases. The reason is that when the court and judges first saw the case, they would logically infer that the injury was caused by the plaintiff’s careless fault, and then believed that these people wanted to compensate for the benefits through the lawsuit, and would refuse to accept the case or rule the defendant in favor.
The weirdness of the case has also attracted a large number of media reporters. Some of them are paid by McDonald’s to bring the rhythm, and some of them are coming to catch the heat. They want to report an outrageous case and put pressure on the plaintiff in public opinion. The same was true at the opening of this case. Before Ribek and Morgan had submitted detailed evidence, the jury’s attitude was: I spilled the coffee and burned myself. As for such a fuss?
You may be wondering, why are these facts and evidence not shown to the jury in advance? Because according to the U.S. court system, for socially sensational cases, the persons selected for the jury must be isolated for a period of time in advance to avoid being misled by public opinion and various so-called “evidence” due to contact with the outside world. Only then can we have access to the full case and evidence.
In principle, the jury decides the facts and the judge decides the legal issues, but the two can influence each other and make suggestions, and the jury is the first party to express its opinion.
At the time of the trial, the judge and the jury finally had access to all the evidence provided by Morgan. The members of the jury are non-legal persons from all walks of life in society, and they will judge problems based on ordinary people’s logic. They were shocked when they saw the photos of Ribek’s severe burns and the material about his illness. Fortunately, I didn’t overturn the hot coffee at McDonald’s, and I became more emotionally inclined to the plaintiff.
▲The scene of the trial
If it is just an emotional card, it is far from enough to influence the outcome of the judgment. Morgan struck the iron while it was hot and asked McDonald’s to disclose the internal information and statistics of the past sales of hot coffee to the court.
I don’t know if I’m not public. I was shocked publicly. McDonald’s has suffered more than 700 complaints of hot coffee burns in the past ten years, of which more than a dozen were injuries similar to those of Rebecq.
▲McDonald’s more than 700 lawsuits caused by burns
When these burned consumers sued the federal court, they usually did not go to the formal court proceedings, including the previous lawsuit that Morgan helped to demand $20,000 in compensation, which was only resolved in the out-of-court settlement stage. However, McDonald’s has a big business but can’t afford to pay more, but prepares 50,000 US dollars every year to “consolute” these unfortunate consumers.
The look of the defendant’s eyes changed by the jury empathizing with ordinary people. The McDonald’s manager who appeared in court gave a set of “reasonable” rhetoric: The reason why McDonald’s set hot coffee at this temperature is based on the research recommendations of the National Coffee Association. Coffee tastes best between 180-190 degrees Fahrenheit. At that time, the fragrance is charming, rich, and mellow. The annual sales of 1 billion cups show that consumers recognize us. If you don’t believe me, buy a cup for a drink? Good guy, this not only refuted but also helped McDonald’s bring a batch of goods.
The experienced Morgan certainly didn’t take this set, and asked sharply: Since the coffee is so good, have you ever asked a medical expert who studies scalds for advice? What are the consequences if this temperature is hot? The manager was choked and had to say that we had not consulted an expert. But hot coffee can burn people. Isn’t that the most basic common sense? Who do you blame for not paying attention? And many of our customers are taken away and drink, which can ensure that consumers can always feel the warmth of our coffee in the cold winter.
At this point, it is already an argument of daily life experience. Morgan testified that the coffee temperature that consumers are accustomed to is usually below 70 degrees Celsius. The temperature of a cup of coffee was so high that the person suffered a third-degree burn and almost lost his life. This is no longer a matter of basic common sense. It is simply that consumers are not in the eyes of consumers.
▲Different studies have investigated the range of consumer coffee temperature preferences. The temperature in the right column indicates that although the studies are different, the conclusions are basically that the coffee temperature is 60-70 degrees Celsius, the taste is best
Upon seeing the case, the defendant’s defense lawyer launched a counterattack from a statistical point of view. We sell 1 billion cups every year, 10 billion cups in 10 years, which can circle the earth twice. There were only 700 scald accidents, which is only 0.000007% of the probability. It can be seen that our McDonald’s coffee is quite safe, and the possibility of accidents is negligible.
As a result, Morgan did not comment on this remark: personal safety is not a problem that can be prevaricated by probability. It is 0.000007% that happened to others, and 100% that happened to yourself.
You can lower the temperature and write clearly in large letters on the coffee cup to remind consumers not to get burned. Why not do it?
“When a person can’t be stretched, they can’t be stretched.” The jury heard the debate between the plaintiff and the defendant. The high-end coffee is not sold at such a high temperature. Just like the McDonald’s that your civilian consumes, you don’t need to consult the experts. The measures to burn so many people will not be improved at all. Attorney Morgan is right! McDonald’s must pay a large sum of 160,000 damages plus 2.7 million punitive damages, making him 2.86 million!
After all, the jury is emotional, and the trial judge on the rational side believes that such a high-value judgment still lacks a legal basis and cannot be enforced. And according to the identification, the temperature of the coffee has dropped when it is poured on Rebecca. Therefore, it was judged that McDonald’s should bear 80% of the liability and Ribek 20% of the liability. According to the rules of infringement damages, 160,000 losses plus three times the punitive damages of 480,000 yuan, a total of 640,000 US dollars.
Of course, McDonald’s is still reluctant, but Morgan has produced strong evidence to support the plaintiff’s claims, and the progress of the case has been exploded by major media. The more delay, the more it will affect McDonald’s image and business. Of course, Liebeck was nearly eighty years old, and he couldn’t hold back his body.
In the end, the two parties reached a settlement out of court and agreed on the amount of compensation. Both parties may have signed a confidentiality agreement and did not disclose it to the outside world. People from all walks of life have speculated that some said it did pay more than 600,000 U.S. dollars, some said that the agreement was over 600,000 but only paid more than 400,000 to the plaintiff, and some said it was only tens of thousands of U.S. dollars. In any case, the amount of compensation requested by the Ribek family at the beginning was exceeded.
(4) The meaning is really positive, so bragging is unnecessary
McDonald’s finally put down his figure and made a little improvement to his coffee products. It directly reduces the temperature of the coffee to 70-72 degrees Celsius, and also uses conspicuous words on the coffee package to indicate “beware of burns” and other reminders.
Now I have cooled down, and I have given a striking reminder to be careful of the high temperature. If I get burned, I won’t be to blame! In addition to McDonald’s, many coffee companies that originally brewed at a higher temperature took the initiative to lower the temperature of the coffee and added leak-proof configurations. Even McDonald’s in Mainland China has borrowed from this case and used waterproof paper bags to prevent spills.
▲Improved McDonald’s drink bag
However, McDonald’s improvements have not spread to all stores around the world. Entertainer An Yixuan bought hot coffee at McDonald’s and spilled the coffee on his leg when he took it out of the paper bag, causing intractable scald scars, but the situation was much lighter than that of Ribek. At that time, she just posted a Weibo about the matter and did not prosecute, and McDonald’s also issued an apology.
▲An Yixuan’s Weibo post after being scalded by coffee
Since coffee is spilled on the car, many car brands are also embarking on internal improvements. The device with the drink cup you see next to the car seat is what this sensational case reminded these car manufacturers to install.
At the legal level, this case has consolidated the rules of punitive damages for infringement damages to a certain extent. It has received a lot of support for reform in the judicial circle and has been used for reference by other countries.
Some people have moved with crooked minds and used loopholes to sue these big companies for compensation. For example, some Doubi bought hot coffee in a McDonald’s restaurant, deliberately poured coffee on themselves, wanted to burn a wound, and then painted a gourd to pay compensation. Unfortunately, McDonald’s blocked these teasing ways to make money in advance.
There are also people who sued McDonald’s that the fried chicken and fries sold by McDonald’s are particularly high in calories, which harms the safety of consumers. You see, so many fat people in the United States are caused by McDonald’s! McDonald’s said that no one is forcing you to eat my fried chicken burger.
But the Ribek case left him with lingering fears, so he secretly introduced some relatively low-fat and healthy foods to stop people’s mouths. The Americans also set up a Stella Prize in the name of Stella Ribek, specifically for those who like to file seemingly unreasonable litigation.
▲The Stella Award (abolished in 2012), the shape of the trophy is a hot coffee that is overturned
What’s more interesting is that when this news was reported in China more than ten or twenty years ago, it caused a wave of praise and even bragging. Many commercial newspapers praised American companies for knowing their mistakes and making corrections, while legal experts affirmed that the judicial judgment is worthy of our study in terms of tort damage compensation, which is quite normal.
Some writers of chicken soup essays told this story in a very vivid style. At the end of the article, they began to carry private goods. They praised the super multinational corporations in the United States for walking on thin ice and treating consumers as gods. The fair justice of the United States turned these large corporations into To charity everyone.
Regardless of whether these super multinational corporations are really obedient to the law or not, they are willing to spend a lot of money to influence the press and judicial circles and create a good image for themselves.
Because the Ribek case was too big, McDonald’s had to make compromises. However, these big companies have been creating the image that Ribek is making unreasonable troubles and demanding compensation. Many Americans did not understand the details of Ribek’s case, thinking that Ribek was scalded by hot coffee and took several million dollars in compensation from McDonald’s. , Suddenly became a rich woman, and accused Ribek.
But the American people are not all fools. They have personally experienced the actions of some multinational giants. Many capital companies cooperate with the U.S. government for-profit and gather the wool of the bottom American people. Many Americans have been tortured and even died in the experiments of these companies. In the eyes of some people in our country, the “philanthropist” is a hypocritical existence in the eyes of many Americans.
Translated from the Headlines （Toutiao 头条新闻）
Author: Director of Gu’s Shipyard（ 顾氏造船厂厂长）
October 31, 1984, this day was Wednesday, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was in a particularly good mood because that day she was going to accept the famous British actor Peter Ustinov (this person is in the movie “Nile Massacre” As the detective Poirot), Ustinov was shooting a documentary about India for Irish TV. This is a great opportunity to show up in the Western media, and it just helps to resolve the tension between the two sides caused by the Western countries accusing the Indian government of taking force against the Sikh holy Golden Temple in April of that year. This is very crucial for her who is seeking a fifth term as prime minister. In addition, Ing Gandhi personally likes to show up in front of the media to show off his South Asian “Iron Lady” style. But what she never expected was that this day would become the last day of her life, But what is even more surprising to the world is that this seemingly simple case with clear facts turned out to be accidents happen frequently. The case has been delayed until more than four years before closing, which has become another laughing stock of India’s contribution to the international community.
In the early morning of October 31st, Indira Gandhi had a hearty English breakfast at her residence at No. 1 Safdarjun Road in the heart of New Delhi. Her health doctor examined her after the meal. In terms of health, Mrs. Gandhi pays great attention to maintaining her body. Especially in today’s situation, she needs to maintain a good condition and appear radiantly in front of the Western media in order to show a perfect image to Europe and the United States as much as possible. Indira Gandhi took great pains. She specially selected a traditional Indian orange saree with a black border, and then the makeup artist dressed it up again.
At 9:10, she was accompanied by Prime Minister’s guard Narayanan Singh, personal bodyguard Rameshwar Dayal and personal secretary R. K. Dawan to the neighboring prime minister’s residence. Mrs. Gandhi, who is educated by Western elites and who knows how to deal with the media, refused the request of bodyguards and guards to wear bulletproof vests, and uncharacteristically, instead of taking the imposing bulletproof car to the Prime Minister’s Office, she walked to the office instead. All of this revolves around a theme: whitewashing the scene of India’s “peace and prosperity” and his own style of being “close to the people”.
As a successful politician, Indira Gandhi knows how to shape his image
Why are Ying Gandhi’s entourage and bodyguards so close to enemies? Let’s start with the Golden Temple incident:
Since 1982, the Sikh political party Akali has called for a greater self-government movement, and there have been bloody conflicts with Hindus. In October 1982, the Indian government announced that Punjab State would be directly governed by the President. On June 2, 1984, Indian troops entered Punjab State. A group of militants headed by Bindraval, leader of the Akali Party, set up their headquarters in the Golden Temple and confronted the government forces. On June 5, government forces exchanged fire with armed Sikhs guarding the Golden Temple. The attack on the Golden Temple began early the next morning. The military operation was codenamed “Operation Blue Star.” After a brief period of panic, the Sikhs quickly took their positions and desperately resisted the government’s attack. In the beginning, because Ing Gandhi repeatedly asked the military not to use heavy weapons to attack the Golden Temple buildings, Indian soldiers could only follow tanks and armored vehicles (7 “victory” tanks from the 16th Hussar Regiment were mobilized, and the 8th Mechanized Infantry The 8 BMP-1 infantry fighting vehicles and OT-64 wheeled armored vehicles from the battalion slowly approached the main gate of the Golden Temple. The tank knocked down the gate of the Golden Temple, but the Sikhs hiding behind the sandbags blocked the passage from the gate square to the temple with machine guns. Many government soldiers were killed and injured. By 9 o’clock in the morning, the government army relied on its military strength to control all entrances and exits of the Golden Temple, and step by step compressed the Sikh positions. Afternoon, government tanks and infantry fighting vehicles fired into the Golden Temple. Sikh strongholds were destroyed one by one, and Bindranwal was killed in the fierce battle. Two days and one night fighting in the Golden Temple, 576 people were killed (84 government troops, 492 Sikhs), 348 were injured, and 1,417 were arrested. The government’s attack on the Golden Temple was regarded by the Sikhs as a serious desecration of the Sikh holy land and the massacre of the Sikhs. Many Sikhs hated Ying Gandhi and wanted to eat meat and skin. Since then, Sikh extremists threatened to “collect the blood debt” and kill Ying Gandhi to avenge their grievances.
Golden Temple of the Sikh Holy Land in India
Closer to home, at about 9:20, Ying Gandhi, escorted by three entourages, passed through the garden of the prime minister’s residence and arrived at the gate of the prime minister’s office at No.1 Akbar Road. The weather was good and she was in a good mood. She talked with her secretary all the way about the interview to be conducted today. The Sikh guard Narayanan Singh behind her held a black umbrella to block New Delhi. The sun was still hot in early winter. Everything is the same on weekdays.
When Ying Gandhi and his party entered the gate, she put her hands together in front of her, facing the two Sikh guards Biant Singh and Savante who were on duty on the path leading to her office. Singh said: “Master (folding your hands together and chanting master is the Indian greet etiquette).”
Biant Singh (left) and Savant Singh (right)
This is the last word she said in her life.
At this time, the distance between the two sides was shortened to only about 2 meters, and Biant Singh suddenly pulled out a 9mm revolver he was wearing and fired a shot at the unsuspecting Ying Gandhi. The bullet hits directly. Blood spurted out of her abdomen, soaking the saree, and then Biant Singh fired two shots into Gandhi’s chest.
All this happened so suddenly that everyone present did not react. Biant Singh, who had finished the bullet, shouted at Savant Singh: “Hurry up and shoot her to death!”
Savant Singh immediately loaded the imperial “Stirling” submachine gun in his hand and fired violently at Indira Gandhi who had been shot down to the ground. The 30 rounds in the magazine quickly hit all the bullets. After going out, most of the bullets hit Ingandhi, and Dayal, her personal bodyguard, was also knocked down (because he was not hit, he was killed).
“The Assassination of Madame Gandhi” shows the scene of two guards shooting at Gandhi. You can see the guards and other personnel in the background who are at a loss and even run away.
The blood-stained saree and other personal belongings when Indira Gandhi was assassinated are now preserved in the Indira Gandhi Memorial Museum in New Delhi.
The two assassins dropped their weapons on the ground after shooting the bullets and then tried to escape the scene, but at this time, other guards who had awakened from the shock had surrounded them from all directions, and two guard towers from the border police force. Seuss Singh Jamwar and Ram Saran blocked Biant Singh and captured him. Biant Singh appeared very calm. He was arrested without resistance, and even tried to catch him. The two guards (they are also Sikhs) said: “I have done what I should do, now it is your turn.” At this time, the other bodyguards also caught Savant Singh, but these guards and The bodyguards may have been confused by the “cooperation” attitude of the two murderers. After catching them, they neither controlled them with handcuffs or other equipment nor did they conduct a rigorous body search. This major omission led to serious consequences. s consequence.
The “Stirling” submachine gun equipped by the Indian army
Biant Singh and Savant Singh were then escorted to a guard room by heavily armed guards and bodyguards for further search and preliminary questioning, but Biant Singh took off under the surveillance of several people. When turning around the headscarf, he suddenly took out a dagger hidden in it and rushed to a guard attempting to seize his “Sterling” submachine gun. The guard immediately fired at two people with the submachine gun, and Biant Singh was himself He was killed on the spot with 6 shots, and Savant Singh was seriously injured in 3 shots. Then the guards rushed to the hospital to rescue Savant.
Besides, when Ying Gandhi was shot, no one dared to move her until her eldest daughter-in-law, Sonya Gandhi, who rushed over after hearing the gunshots, picked her up while shouting “Mummy”, and then commanded the secretary to say Wang and other guards carried Ying Gandhi onto a white Indian-made “Ambassador” car and rushed to the hospital affiliated with the All India Institute of Medical Sciences near the Prime Minister’s Office.
Due to its proximity, the car arrived at the hospital at 9:32 in just a few minutes. The doctor’s initial examination of her found that Ing Gandhi was unaware and had no vital signs. But a team of 12 top Indian doctors is still desperately trying to create miracles on earth. The doctors used a ventilator for Ing Gandhi and continuously performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation for her. Seven bullets were taken out of her body one after another. In the rescue process, due to Ing Gandhi’s massive bleeding, the rescue team transfused a whole 88 bottles of O-type Rh-negative blood for her at any cost, and almost wiped out the same type of blood in the entire blood bank. The blood transfusion volume was more than 30,000 ml! This is almost equal to the total blood volume of 6-8 adults.
At around 12:30 that day, news about the assassination of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had begun to spread in various foreign news agencies. The BBC first reported the news and broadcast the news at the same time, saying that Mrs. Gandhi had died. Rajiv Gandhi, the eldest son of Mrs. Gandhi, who was campaigning in Kolkata, immediately returned to Delhi by plane. The plane landed at Delhi Airport at about 15:00, and then Rajiv Gandhi drove to the hospital under heavy escort.
Indira Gandhi (middle) and his eldest son Rajiv Gandhi (right) and Sanjay Gandhi, their youngest son
Indira Gandhi with his son, daughter-in-law, grandson, and granddaughter
In the front row is Rahul Gandhi (son of Rajiv) on the left, Priyanka Gandhi (daughter of Rajiv) on the right; Indira Gandhi on the left in the middle row, and Sonia Gandhi (son of Rajiv) on the right Wife); in the back row is Sanjay Gandhi (the youngest son of British Gandhi), the center is Maneka Gandhi (the wife of Sanjay), and Rajiv Gandhi (the eldest son of British Gandhi) is on the right.
Rajiv Gandhi failed to see his mother for the last time. Ing Gandhi was seriously injured. Although the rescue was ongoing, by 14:20 that day, the exhausted and helpless doctors had to announce. The strong woman has passed away. Later, the forensic doctors took over and performed an autopsy on her body. Mrs. Gandhi was hit by a total of 30 bullets, of which 23 bullets penetrated her body, and 7 bullets remained in her body. Among them, she got 7 bullets in the abdomen and chest. 3 bullets, 1 bullet hits the heart directly. The forensic doctor kept the bullets taken out one by one in order to check the trajectories and traces of the weapons shot by the two murderers and convict them.
At this time, almost all government cabinet ministers in New Delhi were waiting in the conference room of the hospital for the results of the surgery. When the bad news came, almost everyone was stunned, some were speechless, and some took out their handkerchiefs. At 14:23, the Indian government officially announced the death of the strong woman to the outside world. Rajiv Gandhi, the eldest son of Ing Gandhi, was sworn in as the country’s sixth prime minister at 18:45 that day. At 20 o’clock that night, the Indian government announced the death of Indira Gandhi to the whole country in a news program that night.
Soon after, the new Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi gave a televised speech to the country. In his speech, he asked the supporters of the Congress to maintain rationality and restraint and refrain from angering ordinary Sikhs, so as to avoid more and greater incidents. Bloody conflict. However, it is obvious that all parties regard his bitterness as a deaf ear. In the next three or four days, more than 1,000 people will die in various violent conflicts.
The body of Mrs. Indira Gandhi was put in a coffin on the morning of November 1st the next day in accordance with the Western state funeral ceremonies, and placed on a gun wagon. He set off from the hospital in New Delhi and was heavily armed along the way. Under the escort of the military and police, she was greeted back to her hometown and placed in the local “Youth Home”. This magnificent mansion was once the residence of her father Nehru. During the two-day memorial ceremony, it is said that as many as hundreds of thousands of people came to pay homage to her body.
The remains of Ing Gandhi
The remains of Ing Gandhi
On November 3, the Indian government held a solemn and solemn cremation ceremony for Indira Gandhi near the Mahatma Gandhi Monument. Mahatma Gandhi, her father Nehru, and her favorite young son Sanjay Gandhi were also cremated here. In Gandhi’s body was placed on a pile of sandalwood and firewood covered with flowers, and the firewood was lit by her eldest son Rajiv Gandhi himself. After Mrs. Gandhi was assassinated, the heads of state and heads of state of major countries in the world sent telegrams of condolences one after another.
The Indian government’s investigation into the matter and the liquidation of the murderer and his behind-the-scenes envoy soon began. Investigations show that the murderer, Biant Singh, has served as the guard of Mrs. Indira Gandhi for more than 10 years. Although their identities are very different, the relationship between the two has always been good. After the armed conflict in the Golden Temple, for her personal safety, the Indian security agency once transferred all the Sikh guards around her in July of that year, but Ing Gandhi worried that this would lead to further centrifugal tendency of Sikhism. And affect their prestige and the next election. So she categorically ignored the advice of the security agency and ordered the transfer of all Sikh guards. For this reason, she pointed to Biant Singh in front of the news media and said: “When there is such a loyal one by my side When Sikh guards, I don’t believe I have anything to fear.”
As a result, the cruel fact slapped Mrs. Gandhi in the face mercilessly. Biant Singh took the opportunity of reinstatement to win over the 22-year-old Savant Singh, who was assigned to the Prime Minister’s Guard only 5 months ago. The bitter hatred caused by the Golden Temple incident made the two finally determined. All together to assassinate Ying Gandhi.
Savant Singh was rescued after being seriously injured. He was towed away by the security agency before he fully recovered. After being severely tortured by the “War of the Wheels”, Savant suffered a mental breakdown. He confessed the entire conspiracy and confessed. Another accomplice, Kahar Singh, assistant to the General Directorate of Supply and Processing of New Delhi, also admitted that they had another target as Rajiv Gandhi.
From top to bottom, the three people on the right are Biant, Savant and Kehar
Indian security agencies immediately arrested Kehar Singh and conducted severe interrogation (beating) on him. Kehar finally confessed that he had summoned Biant Singh on October 17, 1984. Conspired with Savant Singh to assassinate Ying Gandhi in his own home. Later, the neighbors of Kehar’s house also provided testimony confirming that Biant and Savante had indeed been to Kehar’s house on the same day.
Kehar Singh also revealed an interesting detail: When they conspired to assassinate, Biant had retreated. After all, he had known Ing Gandhi for 10 years. Although this old lady was mean and ruthless towards political enemies, It was good to the subordinates, which made Biant unable to bear to make up his mind for a while. But just when he was hesitant, at about 13:30 in the afternoon, a falcon fell on a tree near them, so the other two agreed that this falcon must be “the messenger of God.” Bringing the will of God, we should make up our minds to do something to avenge the dead in “Operation Blue Star”. It was only at this time that Biant made his final decision.
Indian prosecutors subsequently filed a lawsuit with the New Delhi court for murder, but the legal system inherited from the Commonwealth of India made the trial process lengthy and boring. Although the New Delhi court quickly sentenced Savant and Kehar to hang for murder, they continued to appeal with various excuses and submitted so-called new evidence to the Court of Appeal, including the aforementioned “God’s Messenger” brought by Falcon. “The will of God”, and used the so-called “religion” and “nation” as an excuse to ask politicians including the old master of India, Britain, to intervene in this case. These unexpected factors caused the lawsuit to drag on for more than four years. The Indian judicial system did not finally complete the process until January 6, 1989. Kehar Singh and Savant Singh were at 8 o’clock in the morning on the 6th. He was hanged in Tihar prison. In order to prevent the Sikhs from commemorating the two murderers, after their bodies were cremated, the ashes were not returned to their relatives, and even the prison’s crematorium was demolished.
So far this assassination that shocked the world has come to an end.
The gate of the office of the Prime Minister of India at No. 1 Akbar Road. It was at the door that Ying Gandhi was assassinated. The road here is covered with glass to commemorate the assassination of Ying Gandhi.
However, deep-rooted religious contradictions in India have allowed the sequelae of this case to continue to this day. In 2003, Sikhs in India held religious ceremonies at the Golden Temple to pay tribute to Kehar Singh, Biant Singh, and Savant Singh. Since then, Sikhs will hold ceremonies to commemorate these three people every year.
On January 6, 2008, the highest religious leader of Sikhism announced that these assassins were Sikh martyrs, and executed Sawan from the Indian government on October 31, 2008, the anniversary of the assassination of Indira Gandhi. The January 6th of Te and Kehar is called “Martyrdom Day”. Although previous Indian governments desperately tried to play down the impact of this incident and attempted to bridge the contradiction with the Sikhs, they had little effect. Perhaps in the future, this contradiction will be detonated again.
Translated from the Headlines （Toutiao 头条新闻）
Author: Elaborate on technology（ 细说科技）
The space shuttle is a great invention after the space shuttle. Once it is put into practical use, the cost of traveling to and from space will be reduced to about one-tenth of the original cost! Among them, during the development of aerospace aircraft, it is possible to use carriers to derive “suborbital bombers” flying at speeds exceeding Mach 15, which cannot be intercepted by existing anti-missile systems. Whether it is civilian or military, aerospace aircraft can change the existing rules!
Dynamic schematic diagram of two-stage separation of “Tengyun” aerospace aircraft
After decades of unremitting efforts, my country has continuously made technological breakthroughs in the field of hypersonic speed. In recent years, the new equipment has emerged endlessly, and now it has surpassed its American counterparts!
“Too advanced and inconvenient to display” launch vehicle in July 2021
On July 16 this year, my country’s suborbital reusable vehicle flight demonstration and verification project, the first flight was a complete success, and major domestic media rushed to report it. The “China Military Industry” Douyin account also reported the next day, and then answered “too advanced and inconvenient to display” when answering questions from netizens.
Schematic diagram of the entire flight of the carrier during vertical take-off and horizontal landing
It is understood that this carrier takes off vertically and landed horizontally. Because it is too advanced, in order to avoid leaks, my country’s official media only reported publicly and did not publish any physical photos or video materials.
Achievement of “violating the laws of physics”
In October 2021, the British “Financial Times” reported that China launched a rocket on July 27, using the “partial orbital bombing system” for the first time to propel a “hypersonic glide vehicle” capable of carrying a nuclear warhead around the earth. The newspaper earlier claimed that China first conducted such a test in August, and this time it said that China conducted a second test on August 13.
The report quoted three people who “understood” the first test as saying that the test shocked the Pentagon and intelligence agencies because China successfully demonstrated a new weapon capability. One person said that US government scientists are trying to understand this ability that the US does not yet have, adding that China’s achievements seem to “violate the laws of physics.”
The official agency for the test on August 13 low-key publicity
Compared with the “too advanced and inconvenient to display” launch vehicle test on July 16, the hypersonic equipment test on July 27 and August 13 in the near future, my country’s official media did not have any public reports. It can be seen that the security level of these two subsequent tests was even higher than that on July 16, and even reports were not allowed!
So, what is the difference between the test on July 16 and the two tests on July 27 and August 13?
According to the public information and related public reports of all parties, it can be determined that the July 16th was a sub-level test of a two-stage orbiting aerospace plane that took off vertically and landed horizontally, that is, the carrier test of the aerospace plane; 7 The two tests on 27th and 13th August were tests of a horizontal take-off and landing aerospace aircraft.
From the perspective of practicability and technological advancement, it is obvious that horizontal take-off and landing aerospace planes are more useful than vertical take-off and horizontal landing air-conditioned planes. At least the former has more options for take-off locations or is highly dependent on rocket launchers. This means that the aircraft tested in the next two tests is more advanced and practical than the aircraft tested on July 16th!
On November 25, the 7th China (International) Commercial Space Summit Forum opened in Wuhan. The Aerospace Science and Industry official revealed for the first time that the “Tengyun” project has successfully made its first flight! The so-called Tengyun Project is the Tengyun Aerospace Aircraft Development Project.
Officially revealed by China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation
Based on the news from all parties, it is basically certain that the aircraft tested on July 27 and August 13 is the “Tengyun” aerospace aircraft!
So, what is the difference between my country’s “Tengyun” aerospace plane and the US’s X37B, space shuttle and reusable rockets?
Before answering this question, let us first understand what an aerospace plane is and the status quo of my country’s development.
The so-called aerospace aircraft is a special aircraft that can fly both in the atmosphere and in space. Due to the difficulty, my country’s decision-making departments have proposed a four-step strategy for aerospace aircraft. The ultimate goal is to develop an aerospace aircraft that can travel to and from space in a single stage.
Step 1: Focus on reality. Based on the liquid oxygen methane rocket engine, develop a two-stage partially reusable space-to-earth transportation system; only the carrier can be reused for this aerospace aircraft, and the orbiter can only be used once, and both are used Rocket power.
Step 2: Based on the technical results of the first step, the development of a two-stage fully reusable rocket-powered space-to-earth transportation system; the carrier and orbiter of this aerospace plane are both, but both are powered by rockets.
Step 3: Based on the technical results of the first and second steps, replace the combined power engine and develop a two-stage fully reusable aerospace aircraft. The carrier and orbiter of this aerospace plane can be reused, but the carrier uses a combined cycle engine, while the orbiter uses rocket power.
Three-step plan for aerospace aircraft
Step 4: After completing the first three steps of planning, develop a single-stage orbital aerospace aircraft based on a combined power system. The carrier and orbiter of this aerospace aircraft are directly integrated into a whole, using a combined cycle engine.
The aerospace aircraft in the third step relies on a more efficient combined-cycle engine, and the overall equivalent specific impact is at least double that of the two aerospace aircraft in the previous two steps! The aerospace plane of the fourth step is the ultimate development goal of the aerospace plane, and the equivalent ratio is similar to or slightly higher than that of the aerospace plane in the previous step.
It can be seen that the test on July 16 in my country is equivalent to the vehicle test in the first or second step above, while the two tests on July 27 and August 13 are the third step in my country. Aerospace aircraft test, namely “Tengyun” aerospace aircraft test.
After understanding the basic knowledge of the “Tengyun” aerospace plane, we can understand why the US X37B, space shuttle and reusable rocket can not be compared with my country’s “Tengyun” aerospace plane!
Next, a brief introduction:
- The X37B is only equivalent to the upper stage of the “Tengyun” aerospace aircraft, that is, the orbiter, which is the same kind of aircraft as the “Shenlong” orbiter in my country.
The “Tengyun” aerospace plane is composed of a lower stage (namely carrier) and an upper stage (namely orbiter). Among them, the carrier is equipped with a combined cycle engine, which can accelerate the carrier and the orbiter together from 0 to a super high speed above Mach 15 and fly to a sub orbit of about 100 kilometers. The orbiter is equipped with a traditional rocket engine. After accelerating to a super high speed above Mach 15 and flying to a sub-orbit of about 100 kilometers, the rocket engine is activated and continues to accelerate until it reaches 7.9 km/s (the first cosmic speed). And enter the predetermined track.
U.S. X37B orbiter returns to the ground
It is understood that currently, the United States has only developed the upper stage of the aerospace aircraft, the X37B orbiter. As for the lower level (vehicle), there is no public news yet. It is expected that the US aerospace aircraft carrier has not been successfully developed, otherwise it would not have been using rockets to launch X37B.
- The space shuttle is inferior to even the most advanced aerospace plane, let alone compared with the “Tengyun” aerospace plane.
The US space shuttle is composed of an orbiter, an outer tank, and a solid booster.
U.S. space shuttle with a total mass of up to 2040 tons
As mentioned earlier, my country’s aerospace aircraft takes four steps, of which the first-stage aerospace aircraft and the space shuttle are the closest. The lower stage of the most basic space shuttle is equivalent to the outer tank and solid booster of the space shuttle, and the upper stage is equivalent to the reusable orbiter of the space shuttle.
The bulk of the quality and cost of the most elementary aerospace planes is the reusable lower level, that is, the carrier, while the one-time-use upper level has a small proportion of quality and cost. However, the space shuttle is the other way around. The bulk of the quality and cost are the outer tank and the solid booster.
According to the information, the total weight of the three parts of the space shuttle is 2040 tons, of which the orbiter weighs 104 tons. This means that for each launch, the outer storage tank and solid booster, which account for about 95% of the total mass, can only be used once, and only the orbiter, which accounts for only 5.098% of the total mass, can be reused.
It is understood that the total number of parts and components of the US space shuttle exceeds 2.5 million, which is a complex aircraft developed in the history of mankind. Due to the complexity, the reliability is still very poor. Two of the five space shuttles crashed due to failures so that NASA had to retire the space shuttles early.
In order to avoid the tragedy of the US space shuttle, even the most advanced aerospace planes in my country have adopted simple and reliable designs as much as possible. For example, the fuel is not used to store and highly dangerous liquid hydrogen, but is replaced by liquid hydrogen. Methane.
It can be seen that the US space shuttle is not as good as the first-class space shuttle, let alone compared with the “Tengyun” space shuttle.
- Musk’s reusable rocket development potential is far inferior to that of aerospace planes.
According to statistics, the fuel cost of the rocket’s single launch cost only accounts for about 5%, and about 95% of the cost is the cost of manufacturing the rocket body. This is also the fundamental reason why the United States would rather sacrifice part of the launch efficiency to develop reusable products.
The reusable rocket successfully landed softly
Musk’s reusable rocket “Falcon” rocket uses a two-stage design, in which the recyclable part is the first stage with a large mass and cost, which is equivalent to the lower stage of the first-stage aerospace aircraft in the first step. From this point of view, it seems that the cost-effectiveness of US reusable rockets is comparable to that of aerospace aircraft.
However, even if the number of reusables is the same as that of the aerospace plane, the development potential of this rocket is far less than that of the aerospace plane. The main reasons are these 3 points:
- The specific impulse is lower.
The reusable rocket uses a rocket engine, whose average specific impulse is difficult to exceed 360 seconds, and once the aerospace aircraft carrier engine is replaced with a “combined cycle engine”, its equivalent average specific impulse will exceed 800 seconds! This means that when launching objects of the same mass into the same orbit, the fuel required for an aerospace plane will be less than half of that of a reusable rocket!
Various combined modes of combined power engine
- A rocket launch tower is necessary to launch successfully.
Reusable rockets are generally launched vertically, which requires a launch tower to launch successfully. After the development of the aerospace aircraft to the third step above, it can take off and land horizontally! This means that aerospace aircraft are more flexible than reusable rockets and have greater potential for civilian and military use.
- The reusable proportion is far inferior to that of aerospace planes.
After the development of the aerospace aircraft to the above-mentioned second step, it can be fully reusable, while the reusable rocket can only be reused in the first stage, and the cost cannot be compared with that of the aerospace aircraft.
Although our country’s “Tengyun” aerospace aircraft is very powerful, our country intends to use it in the fields of disaster prevention and mitigation, and the eradication of pests. Some countries are requested not to think too much, let alone panic.
Conclusion: With the combined cycle engine whose equivalent specific impulse is more than twice that of the rocket engine, the aerospace aircraft can be launched into orbit with higher efficiency and lower fuel cost. With the fully reusable concept, the cost of using aerospace aircraft is lower, and the biggest cost after it matures in the future will only be a fuel cost and daily maintenance cost. The U.S. X37B, space shuttle, and reusable rockets are not comparable in these two aspects. Obviously, the “Tengyun” aerospace plane considered by American scientists to violate the laws of physics is far ahead of its American counterparts!
Translated from the Headlines （Toutiao 头条新闻）
Author: Crow captain（乌鸦校尉）
The Hong Kong Bar Association issued a statement on the 17th, strongly condemning the incident in which two courts in Hong Kong received powder-threatening letters within one month.
The news couldn’t help but remind the crow of an old thing. On December 8, 2019, the Hong Kong opposition held a large-scale demonstration against the aftermath of the district council election victory. The mobs were arrogant and threw Molotov cocktails at the high court, which caused a shock of public opinion.
At that time, the Bar Association faced such a blatant attack on the Judiciary, but it was as quiet as a chicken, not to mention the condemnation statement or even a word.
Respectful before and after, it makes people laugh.
Of course, it is now the era of Hong Kong’s national security and law, and after several beatings by the state media and the government, the Bar Association is also preparing to embroider the red flag to be in harmony with the dust. Helping the court to speak out is something they must do, but they don’t know it’s too late.
At first glance, the words of the Hong Kong Bar Association may not have any good impressions from everyone. They really did too much of the disgusting thing.
On July 1, 2019, mobs besieged the Legislative Council, starting the black riots. The Bar Association issued a statement but blamed the rampant violence on the SAR government’s failure to agree to the unreasonable demands of the mob, implying that “the rebellion is justified.” The ambiguous attitude of the Bar Association, coupled with many members of the association openly supporting the black violence, is a major cause of the rapid deterioration of the violence.
After violent incidents such as “burning the living”, “flying bricks to kill”, and frantically destroying public and private property, the Bar Association continued to maintain “shameful silence” and instigated it in disguise.
When the establishment party made a slight criticism of the individual court’s outrageous judgments, the Bar Association made a serious statement, issued a statement, held a press conference, and sent important posts on TV programs to criticize the establishment’s actions for undermining the rule of law and causing endless troubles. It seems that the rule of law in Hong Kong is about to reach the end of the world.
The faces of these standard dogs are really disgusting.
The Hong Kong Bar Association is so stubborn and has historical origins. As early as the British colonial rule of Hong Kong, the two traditions left by the British to the Hong Kong judiciary have continued to this day:
The first is the separation of barristers and solicitors;
Second, the Bar Association has a strong ability to bind practicing barristers.
Let’s start with this first tradition. After talking about a barrister for a long time, let’s talk about what a barrister is. The English barrister is Barrister, which means defense lawyer. As the name suggests, it is a lawyer who wants to go to court with a wig. If he has been practicing for ten years and has performed well, he can apply to become a Queen’s Counsel. The original English meaning is “Queen (King)” Senior Legal Counsel of Your Majesty. After the return of Hong Kong, it was renamed, Senior Counsel.
The original solicitors are Solicitor, and they generally provide clients with legal services other than court litigation, such as drafting documents and reviewing contracts.
Barristers must be self-employed and must operate independently of the interests of their clients. I believe they can provide clients with more objective professional advice and are bound by the “non-rejection principle”. They cannot refuse appointments without reasonable reasons.
In Hong Kong, the status of solicitor and barrister are separated in accordance with the British tradition, and one type of license cannot engage in another job.
In fact, looking at it this way, the big word in the three words barrister is not accurate. Barrister and solicitor are both lawyers, but the division of labor is different, and there is no distinction between high and low.
However, this big character is extremely accurate and vivid, because, for Hong Kong people, a barrister is really a different identity.
Barristers are commonly called “Da Zhuang” in Hong Kong. Once they are called by others, they immediately feel different. When attending various occasions, the barristers are very willing to wear this title, and even when the police show their status as a police officer, the inspecting police officer at the highest level will respectfully call the police officer and deal with it politely. problem.
Coupled with the fact that barristers are publicly visible jobs, they can easily attract the public’s attention. The various legal dramas broadcasted by TV stations have deepened the public’s fixed impression of maintaining the rule of law.
In particular, the handsome “principle of non-rejection of employment” has given a barrister a halo. This principle is also called the “taxi principle”, which means that as long as the client can pay the remuneration, the barrister cannot refuse to defend the client.
This principle came from Britain in 1792, when the famous political activist and philosopher Thomas Paine’s “Human Rights” caused turmoil, and the British government accused Paine of inciting rebellion. No one dared to defend Paine for this kind of “nothing to pray for when he was guilty of the crime”. But Thomas Erskine stepped up, and when his colleagues reminded him that if he defended Paine, he would not even want to receive royal orders in the future, Erskine replied loudly and loudly: If a barrister is allowed to say that he will not Appearing in court on behalf of the prosecuted person, the freedom of England fell apart.
With such an image in the hearts of the people, the Hong Kong officials have become “politicians reserve.”
Martin Lee, the founding chairman of the Hong Kong Democratic Party and the leader of the Gang of Four, is a barrister. Today, he is even the most senior senior barrister in Hong Kong.
In the mid-1960s, he returned to practice in Hong Kong from the United Kingdom. In 1967, he appeared in court to defend the leftist figures in the “June 7 Incident”, which attracted the attention of political circles. In the early 1980s, as the chairman of the Bar Association at that time, he became a big coffee that various factions competed to attract.
The Governor’s Mansion naturally did not dare to neglect, and even the mainland once regarded him as a guest of honor, and he also led a delegation to visit Beijing. In the future, with this capital, he became a member of the Basic Law Drafting Committee, was elected as a member of the legal profession of the Legislative Council and started his political career.
The Hong Kong Civic Party, established in 2004, is the second-largest political group within Panmin. Its strong members include former chairman Yu Ruowei, current chairman Liang Jiajie, founding member Tang Jiahua, former party leader Yang Yueqiao, party vice-chairman Guo Rongkeng and others, all of whom are barristers.
Of course, the government is not without major cases, but it is undeniable that due to the long-standing tradition of the SAR government’s “political officials governing Hong Kong” (AO governing Hong Kong), the major cases are still in the public if they want to enter the house in the wild. The road on the people’s side is wider.
Here we have to mention the second tradition of the Hong Kong judiciary. The Bar Association has a strong ability to bind practicing barristers.
In Hong Kong, if you want to become a barrister, it is not enough to have an education, a degree, and professional training. You must join the Bar Association, pay membership fees, and become a full member of the Association before you can go to court.
And as long as you become a lawyer unless you give up your qualifications, or even if you commit murder and commit life imprisonment, as long as the Bar Association does not disqualify you, no other person or organization has the right to do so.
Don’t feel exaggerated. According to the law, in Hong Kong, if a barrister is convicted of a criminal case, the Bar Association will be responsible for studying whether the case needs to be referred to the “Barristers Disciplinary Tribunal” or “Lawyers Disciplinary Tribunal”. Disciplinary hearings are initiated, and depending on the nature of the crime, the circumstances of the case, and other factors, it is determined whether a penalty is required. Relevant penalties include fines, suspension of practice qualifications, or even permanent cancellation of practice qualifications.
We can look at a few examples. Barrister Huang Guisheng was ruled by the court to use a false will to undertake the estate of the late licorice actor and calligrapher Ou Shuzhan, stealing HK$15,400 from Ou Shuzhan’s bank account, and was sentenced to four and a half years in prison. . In August 2019, the Barrister Disciplinary Tribunal ruled that two complaints about Huang Guisheng’s misconduct were established. Starting from December 12, 2019, Huang Guisheng’s qualification to practice has been officially canceled.
“Perverted” Ma Haohui once stole a bust in Peng Chau. He was convicted in 2010 and fined by the court. By 2013, the Barrister Disciplinary Tribunal ruled that Ma Haohui had misconducted and decided to suspend his barrister practice qualifications for a period of 30 months.
The two cases said they were big or small, and the Bar Association’s handling of them did not seem to be a problem. But what is staggering is that the former Civic Party leader Yang Yueqiao, who is currently being detained for suspected violations of the Hong Kong National Security Law, the former vice-chairman of the Hong Kong Rebellion Organization Stake, Zou Xingtong, and the court convicted Martin Lee, Wu Aiyi and others, are now Either in jail or at home on probation, but they still have the title of practicing barrister. I really don’t know what to say.
Barristers are not punished, and even the power of whether to submit their cases to the disciplinary tribunal is at the top of the Association. If they do not, then a barrister in prison will still be a barrister and will not be punished.
The professional division between barristers and solicitors has resulted in barristers becoming a member of the blue-blooded nobility, and the barrister’s rewards and punishments are all controlled by the Bar Association, which naturally gives the Bar Association tremendous political power.
And because the barrister group is generally committed to the pan-civil political group, these people are members of the democratic legislative council and social activists; when they turn to the court and return to the bar, they will be restored to their status. In this way, the Bar Association and the Pan-Democrats do not distinguish between you and me. It is like glue, which naturally caused the Bar Association to be extremely politically inclined to the opposition.
In fact, these two traditions not only allowed the Hong Kong Bar Association to deviate from the neutrality of professional organizations, and became a political organization, which was dubbed by Hong Kong people as the “Citizen Party B Team”, but also undermined the construction of the rule of law in Hong Kong. Citizens cannot enjoy their due legal rights.
First, because barristers operate independently and do not directly contact the parties, many problems have been caused.
The appointment of a barrister needs to go through a solicitor and a law firm, which means that the barrister’s knowledge of the case is completely dependent on information and cannot fully understand the needs of the client.
Hong Kong entrepreneur Gong Ruxin, and her husband Wang Dehui jointly operated Chinachem Group in the early years. With assets of more than 30 billion US dollars, she was once the richest woman in Asia and the richest woman in the world.
Wang Dehui has a kidnapped life in this life. In April 1983, Wang Dehui and Gong Ruxin drove away from the Peak Bailujing apartment to work as usual. On the way, they were kidnapped by several armed robbers and extorted US$100 million. Wang was placed in a large refrigerator and transported back to “Sandou”. Gong was released. Go home and prepare to redeem to save people.
According to the kidnapper’s instructions, Gong Ruxin transferred 11 million US dollars in cash to Taiwan through money laundering but was seized by the police, and all the kidnappers in Hong Kong were arrested. Wang Dehui was rescued as a result.
This case was very sensational at the time and attracted the attention of a retired police chief named Zhong Weizheng. Sergeant Zhong might have wanted to study the case at first, but the more he watched, the more excited he became. In the end, he fell in love with him and had a very bold idea. His old man believed that the gangsters were clever and were arrested because they missed several important links. Inspector Zhong has been in the police for many years and has rich experience in counter-reconnaissance. If he was to make up for the negligence in the past and use the same method to kidnap Wang Dehui again, he would surely succeed.
Thinking of this, Sergeant Zhong did what he said, entangled with a group of friends on the road, and even got his own son. In April 1990, Wang Dehui was kidnapped again on his way home after playing squash at the Happy Valley Horse Club. The kidnappers were not only afraid of police recording and monitoring but also openly advertised in Oriental Daily and Sing Tao Daily, naming Gong Ruxin and Gong Ruxin. They contacted, and Gong Ruxin received a $1 billion extortion from the kidnappers two days later, and the first installment was $60 million.
The Hong Kong police arrested 6 people from 1991 to 1993. The culprits sent a ransom of 260 million Hong Kong dollars to Taiwan through underground finance.
Of course, the Taiwan region has become a transit point for illicit money, which makes the Taiwan police very upset. Taiwan’s “Investigation Bureau of the Ministry of Justice” took the initiative to obtain most of the stolen money through informants.
But this time Wang Dehui’s life was not so good. Some suspects arrested in Taiwan confessed that Wang Dehui was carried to the high seas by a Hong Kong ocean-going fishing vessel on April 13, 1990, and his whereabouts have been unknown since then.
A rich man never sees a person or a corpse. It must be bewilderment to whom his property belongs. Therefore, if he does not die for a day, this property will definitely not be able to be robbed. Therefore, the Hong Kong High Court expressed mercy in 1999, announcing that Wang Dehui was in fact dead, and fired the starting gun of the Century Contending Case.
The double convenience of the game is Gong Ruxin and Wang Dehui’s father Wang Tingxin.
In Gong Ruxin’s view, this huge family business was earned by himself and Wang Dehui, and the two were family friends when they were in Shanghai, and there is no need to tear their skins. Wang Tingxin said that he invested in this industry when it was opened, and now he should have a share.
The more the two sides said that the dispute became bigger, and eventually they went to court without accident.
The barrister hired by Gong Ruxin’s law firm for this case was Martin Lee.
Martin Lee was a member of the Legislative Council at that time, a symbol of the pan-people, and a representative of the American power in Hong Kong. It is equivalent to Martin Lee who wants to run the Hong Kong Legislative Council and show off his skills in demonstrations while going to the United States to be a traitor, and helping the rich woman fight a lawsuit.
After all, Li Dazhuang is just a person, so many bad things, he is really incapable of doing things.
In fact, the property dispute lawsuit is a question of the strength of evidence on the one hand, and on the other hand, it is to obtain the approval of the judge and the support of the public opinion.
However, in the Legislative Council at that time, Mr. Martin Lee was addicted to spraying SAR government officials. His words were intense and impassioned. It was a bit embarrassing to ask him to switch his way of speaking immediately.
So Martin Lee was not familiar with the case on the one hand, and on the other hand, he didn’t have much preparation, so he regarded this court as a legislative council chamber. As a result, he screamed at the witnesses of the king’s father and the king’s father himself and carried out “lengthy and unnecessary cross-examination”, which extended the trial time to 172 days, which caused the judge to be extremely unhappy, even in the judgment. Diss gave Li Dazhuang a moment.
And because of Li Dazhang’s arrogant attitude, the client Gong Ruxin was infamous for “unfaithfulness, unfilial piety, unkindness, and unrighteousness”, and he lost the case in the High Court. In the end, Gong Ruxin had to dismiss Martin Li and find another competent lawyer. Sure enough, after Barrister Yu Ruohai arrived, the case went to the Court of Final Appeal, and Gong Ruxin finally won.
Like Li Dazhuang, there are not a few barristers in Hong Kong who dare to go to court and talk nonsense if they are not familiar with the case. This undoubtedly damages the rights and interests of the parties and the reputation of Hong Kong barristers.
Second, the separation of barristers and solicitors will increase the burden on the public and may further cause judicial injustice.
In May of this year, an unjust uncovered case shocked public opinion in Hong Kong.
In October 2016, Ma Jiajian, who was 20 years old, agreed to collect a parcel for a friend surnamed Hong lent the address of the house, although he did not know what was in the parcel. In the end, the police found a kilogram of cocaine in the package, and less than 10 grams of cocaine was found in the home of a friend surnamed Hong. Both were prosecuted.
Ma Jiajian used to work in a ramen shop, and his friend surnamed Hong was his colleague. The latter’s elder brother was the owner of the ramen shop. After the two were arrested, Brother Hong asked Ma’s father to hire a lawyer. In the end, Ma Jiajian’s case was represented by a lawyer hired by Brother Hong.
The lawyer deceived Ma Jiajian. If he hires a barrister to go to court, it will cost a lot of money. If he loses the lawsuit, he will have to pay attorney fees. It is better to sign a plea agreement. The barrister who cooperated with the lawyer also participated in the deception. After deceiving people here, the lawyer turned around and communicated with the Attorney General in exchange for the withdrawal of the charge from his friend, surnamed Hong. Ma Jiajian was eventually sentenced to 23 years in prison.
After Ma Jiajian was imprisoned, he found that there was a problem and filed an appeal. The case was amended this year, and Ma Jiajian was acquitted on appeal.
Re-examining this horrific unjust case, it can be seen that Ma Jiajian did not hire a barrister to appear in court, but pleaded guilty in court. He was frightened by the huge expenditure of hiring a barrister. It stands to reason that a person should not be unable to protect his due rights because of his financial ability. However, under the current Hong Kong system, financial ability influences the outcome of a case.
Hiring a lawyer is money, and hiring a barrister is also money. In Hong Kong, the fee for a barrister depends on the complexity of the case, the time required, and the qualifications and experience of the barrister himself, and it is also divided into “appointment fees.” And “renewed employment fee”, even if it is cheaper, it costs tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands. For the grassroots, this is already a sky-high price, not to mention those senior lawyers who collect millions at every turn.
I don’t know how many people in Hong Kong are forced to swallow results that are not conducive to them in court because they cannot afford the money of a barrister. This objectively casts a shadow over the rule of law in Hong Kong.
In fact, internationally, in most common law countries or regions, there is no distinction between barristers (litigation lawyers) and lawyers (solicitors). Take the United States as an example. As long as lawyers pass the qualification examination, they can file a lawsuit or defend themselves in court.
As for the United Kingdom, although there is still a special division between litigation lawyers and solicitors, in England and Wales, a lawyer can hold two qualifications at the same time. Unlike Hong Kong, barristers and solicitors can only choose one of the two. Changing identities also requires different lengths of practice experience and examinations, and students have made “barristers” “unappealing”.
It can be said that the merger of the legal profession has become a general trend in common law jurisdictions.
At present, the mainland people’s attention to Hong Kong’s judicial issues is often focused on “foreign judges” and “huang corpse lawyers.” In fact, the reason why they can upset the situation and even influence politics is not possible without a system like the Bar Association. What’s more, the highly monopolistic and centralized barristerial system has already harmed the rule of law in Hong Kong and even caused judicial unfairness. The ordinary people in Hong Kong are also victims.
The barrister system in Hong Kong, and even the entire judicial system, should really be changed.
Dagong.com: The statutory power of the barrister’s “Political Association” should be abolished
Hong Kong 01: “Barrister” and “lawyer” should not be distinguished between high and low
Zheng Feifei: The Evolution of the British Dual Lawyer System
Translated from the Headlines （Toutiao 头条新闻）
Author: Chenfeng Old Court（晨枫老苑）
Pax Britannica did not have a clear start time, but it peaked in the 18th-19th centuries. However, in the 1860s and 1970s, two major events occurred in the world: the American Civil War and the reunification of Germany. Both the United States after the Civil War and the reunified Germany entered rapid development. At the end of the 19th century, the economies of Germany and the United States surpassed Britain, but the United Kingdom continued to maintain a leading position in politics and military for a period of time due to its stock.
Comics about the British-German naval race back then
This is also the era when the British navy still rules the world’s oceans
The United States is too far away, Germany is too close, Europe is still the center of the world, and the focus of Britain is naturally on Germany. This is the age of the navy. The fast and connected ocean makes the navy the inside line of operations, and strong ships and artillery overwhelm the cumbersome army in terms of firepower and mobility. Pax Britannica’s capital is the British Royal Navy that crushes the world.
After the rise of Germany, it is determined to build a sea power that can compete with the British Royal Navy. Tirpitz’s goal is to build a German Navy that can reach 2/3 of the Royal Navy’s strength. Britain’s naval superiority means the ability to implement naval blockades and block Germany’s overseas trade and raw material imports. It also means the ability to cover the landing of the army and the strength to interfere in European affairs. The German navy challenge means to cut off the British military’s ability to intervene in European affairs and break the blockade, and possibly even counter it.
John Fisher, the most influential man in British naval history after Drake and Nelson
Alfred von Tirpitz, founder of the modern German navy
In terms of naval technology, Britain first launched the dreadnought ship in 1906. The combination of speed, armor, and firepower was decisively ahead of the traditional warships of other naval powers, but it was also a decisively high cost.
Dreadnoughts caused naval competitions among Western powers, of which Britain and Germany were the most intense. In turn, the dreadnought itself is also a product of the British-German naval competition. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the British navy still ranked first in the world by its stock, but its fleets scattered all over the world were old and scattered. The First Minister of Maritime Affairs (equivalent to the Commander of the Navy) John Fisher decided to abolish the old ships drastically, shrink the remaining elite forces to England, and vigorously build the decisively leading dreadnought ship.
The battleship “Dreadnought” is epoch-making in naval history, integrating firepower, speed, and armor, leading a generation of naval design
Fisher’s strategy greatly strengthened the strength of the local fleet and the direction of the North Sea, which is the only outlet for the German high seas fleet. The interests of other parts of the world can only be taken care of by allies. For example, the Americas are handed over to the United States, and the Far East is handed over to Japan. Britain is not so naive to trust its allies. Britain has the two-power principle of naval construction to guarantee the bottom line. In other words, the strength of the British navy needs to be greater than the combined strength of the second and third strongest navies in the world, so Britain is not afraid of the allies being active. The navy is capable of maneuvering around the world.
Fisher’s strategy of shortening the front and shrinking forces is also in line with the reality of Britain’s growing financial constraints, but Britain’s financial constraints have also made the principle of the two powers shrinking. The United States was first excluded, and then whether the two powers in Europe were Germany, France or Germany and Russia changed again and again. In the end, the two powers were no longer the sum of the second and third strongest, regardless of enemies and friends, but only enemies.
Beihai is the focus area of British-German competition, and it is vital to the lives of both Britain and Germany.
However, the British public was still immersed in the afterglow of the old empire and insisted on expanding the army to resist Germany (We want eight and we won’t wait, where eight refers to the planned eight dreadnought ships). Under the pressure of strong public opinion, both Britain and Germany expanded the scale of shipbuilding. At the outbreak of World War I, Britain built 20 dreadnoughts and 9 battlecruisers, and Germany had 15 dreadnoughts and 7 battlecruisers. Germany has no time. If the First World War did not break out in 1914, whether Germany could eventually catch up with Britain, there are different opinions, but it is certain to further narrow the gap.
Britain and Germany are financially overwhelmed, and Germany’s strategic position is becoming increasingly difficult. The pressure of Tsarist Russia forced Germany to shift its resources to the army, and militarism also made Germany more and more isolated. In 1912, German Prime Minister Oberbaden von Batemann-Holwig suggested to Britain that Germany should stop its expansion and recognize British sovereignty in exchange for Britain’s neutrality in future wars. Britain refused. Britain believes that it is self-evident that Britain dominates the sea, but Britain cannot sit back and watch Germany dominate the European continent.
Despite the dust, Germany quietly turned, turning to build submarines in early 1914, avoiding direct competition with the British navy. In 1913, the British Treasury also had a serious dispute with Fisher’s route (Fisher retired in 1911, but succeeded Xiao Gui Cao Sui), and Britain’s vigorous shipbuilding was also unsustainable.
The Anglo-German naval race ended on the eve of World War I. Before the war, Britain and Germany had great confidence in a rapid victory. The war was more tragic than everyone had imagined, and the war crippled everyone. Germany was “back to pre-liberation overnight”, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire collapsed, the October Revolution broke out in Tsarist Russia, France became a second-rate empire, the decline of the British Empire also surfaced after the war, the United States and Japan became emerging powers, and the United States Becoming Europe’s “offshore manipulator”, Japan strongly squeezed British interests in the Far East. World War II was a continuation of World War I. The ending of Pax Britanicca and the opening of Pax Americana were finally completed at the end of World War II.
The Anglo-German naval competition is often used to compare contemporary Sino-US competition. China corresponds to the position of Germany and the United States corresponds to the position of Britain. The interpretation of Europe and the United States is: the United States will win a tragic victory like the United Kingdom; China will be interrupted in its rise like Germany. The focus of Europe and the United States is to prevent the United States from being maimed like Britain after the First World War. But history cannot be interpreted mechanically in this way.
On the eve of World War I, the stock of the predominant power Britain was dominant, and the growth of the rising power Germany was dominant. If the outbreak of World War I is postponed, it will only be a matter of time before Germany surpasses Britain. Therefore, by creating incidents, Britain forces Germany to start a war without preparation. Germany insisted on avoiding the war, but in the end, it was dragged into the war by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, its allies.
Both Britain and Germany worked hard to create an allied system. Britain finally pulled France and Tsarist Russia and forced Germany to fight on the land on the two fronts, while at the same time bearing British pressure on the sea. At the end of the First World War, the United Kingdom also pulled into the United States, not counting the cannon fodder countries of the Commonwealth such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and India. Germany grabbed the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, occupying the heart of Europe and the southern wing. It must be said that Britain’s allies are much stronger, while Germany’s allies have more burdens than comrades in arms.
But today’s situation is very different.
The U.S., a conservative power, is still dominant in terms of strength by virtue of its stock, and the rising power of China is even more dominant in terms of growth. The United States has been unable to determine whether it is possible to win the conflict, so, despite aggressive provocations and persecution, it still avoids crossing the threshold of war. With the momentum of China’s rise, the continued narrowing of the stock gap between China and the United States is beneficial to China, and it is even more important to try to avoid war.
It is often said that China’s rise will have to go through a war, and compared with the resistance to US aggression and aid to Korea, they think that the current conditions are better, and they should dare to fight the United States with one punch, so as not to get a hundred punches. China has never been afraid of war. The more it is afraid of war, the more war will come, but this is not the same as actively seeking war. This is not a question of daring to dare. The resistance to U.S. aid to Korea under Chairman Mao was not because of “dare” but because of “must.” It is not yet the necessary time to cross the red line for Taiwan’s independence, and US military intervention is trying to prevent China’s reunification. That is the necessary time.
This is also in contrast with Great Britain and Germany during World War I. Germany, a rising power, was drawn into the war by the pig teammate Austria-Hungary. The Austro-Hungarian Empire on the eve of World War I have nearly torn apart, its national strength was empty, and crises were everywhere. The various interactions of the European powers before the war pushed all parties into a dead end, and the wrong overestimation of their own strength by all parties made the situation firewood. A gunshot in Sarajevo finally ignited the pile of dry wood.
Today, instead, Taiwan Province, a pig teammate of the United States, a major country, may draw the United States into war, and the war will happen at the wrong time and at the wrong place against the United States. The United States cannot yet count on its allies to act as cannon fodder like the British in World War I. Whether it is Quad or Aukus, the United States does not have enough allies in the Asia-Pacific region. China does not have the problem of two-line warfare. The United States cannot even pull on India and force China to fight on the two fronts, because India has no ability to cross the Himalayas to attack China. After all, our neighbor has always been able to take advantage of the strange mentality that others have never wanted to be used by others.
The Taiwan Strait is not the North Sea, it is too close to the mainland and too far away from the United States
It is impossible for India to cross the Himalayas to launch a meaningful attack on China
This is different from the First World War or even the Cold War era. The Russian army took the initiative to attack during the First World War. During the Cold War era, China may also launch an offensive against the Soviet Far East. In fact, the Soviet Army and the People’s Liberation Army are likely to be forced to attack. The Soviet Army can only protect the long and fragile communication lines by attacking ahead of the People’s Liberation Army. Only by attacking the People’s Liberation Army can it be possible to cut off the communication lines. Passivate the Soviet armor offensive. But such a situation cannot happen in the Himalayas. The PLA only needs to implement flexible defenses on the ridgeline and wait for work to be able to crush any offensive by the Indian army that enters the plateau.
Now it is not the same as resisting US aggression and aiding Korea. At that time, the United States had no expectation of China’s decisive battle. The strategic focus of the United States was always in Europe. The Soviet Army in the Far East also exerted pressure on the US troops stationed in Japan. Volunteers were fighting with the US military with one hand tied behind its back. China is now the only focus of the United States. China’s strength has greatly increased, and the US stock is still strong. It is more general to say that it is more advantageous than the era of resisting US aggression and aid to Korea.
In the British-German competition, Britain was tactically passive, but strategically active, forcing Germany to follow its own design and step by step on the path of self-determination and provoking war. Now it is the United States that takes the initiative in tactics and can continue to challenge things, but China has taken the initiative in strategy. The United States did not play the Taiwan card when the gap between China and the United States was greater and the United States became stronger because it did not see the necessity of playing this card, and the United States did not want to pay any price. By the time I realized it, the price was unacceptable. However, if the card is played late, it is no longer a question of cost, but a question of survival.
China also forced the United States to face its own structural problems. Biden’s 3.5 trillion rebuilding plan shrank to 1.2 trillion (deducting normal appropriations, actually only 550 billion). It was not passed before COP26, but it was passed. It’s not that Biden is better than Obama and Trump, but that both parties realize that it is too late to raise their heads from the party’s feud and face the real problems of the United States squarely. This is not only far from enough, but also efficiency issues. If China’s infrastructure investment needs to be valued by purchasing power equivalent factors, the United States needs to use efficiency factors to depreciate. This has not yet been included in the United States’ lack of a system for launching infrastructure. There is still a long way to go before the allocation of funds is turned into reality. During the epidemic, the United States has given a lot of money, and all levels of finance have the problem of “money can’t be used”, but the actual problem has not been solved because of this.
China’s nominal GDP has exceeded 70% of that of the United States, and its purchasing power equivalent GDP has surpassed that of the United States in 2017. However, China’s military expenditure accounts for only half to 2/3 of the United States’ GDP. In other words, China spends more resources on Economic and people’s livelihood development has greater potential for development. But China’s military modernization has already put tremendous pressure on the United States.
China’s GDPPPP has already surpassed the United States (the algorithm is different, here it was exceeded in 2015, and the World Bank data is in 2017), and the nominal GDP is also steadily approaching, and it is expected to exceed it by 2030
China’s military spending still lags behind that of the United States, but the gap is narrowing; after accounting for PPP adjustments, the gap is even smaller
However, the proportion of GDP is still very low, and the expansion potential greatly exceeds that of the United States.
The United States does not have the two-power principle, but the United States has become accustomed to crushing advantages, especially the navy and air force, and such advantages are now disappearing. As in the British-German naval competition, the US government and the opposition are calling for military expansion. As at that time, the fiscal pressure in the United States is also high. It is also possible for China to mobilize the flow of American resources through a moderate arms race and delay the reconstruction of the United States.
China does not have many reliable allies, but this also makes China’s decision-making free from the ties of allies, and there is no problem like Germany being dragged into war by the Austro-Hungarian Empire. All the cards are in its own hands. The biggest card is Sustainable and sustainable development.
But the United States, apart from Taiwan, doesn’t have many cards anymore. The United States can play the Taiwan card, but Wang Zhan is always in China’s hands. When and under what conditions will Taiwan independence be considered to have crossed the red line, the decision-making power lies with China, not the United States, and China’s decision-making is unnecessary and will not be transparent to the United States. Strategic ambiguity is not something that only the United States can play. The United States thinks that it is possible to boil China in warm water through Taiwan, but it is actually China that boils the United States in warm water all over the world.
The United States wants to play the Taiwan card, but Wang Zhan is in China’s hands
There are fewer and fewer choices and more and more difficult. This is the greatest sign of the passiveness of the US strategy.
For China, you must have determination and patience, and time is on China’s side. It’s not that it is not reported, the time has not arrived.
Translated from the Headlines （Toutiao 头条新闻）
Author: Silent Night History（静夜史）
Nepal, a landlocked country between China and India, but often coveted by the United States.
On June 1, 2001, in Nepal in the southern foothills of the Himalayas, the bloody murder of the royal family occurred that shocked the world.
Because of a fierce dispute with the queen over choosing a mate, Crown Prince Dipendra slaughtered at the royal family’s monthly royal banquet. Under the frenzied burst of UZI submachine guns and M-16 automatic rifles, the 55-year-old King Birendra, Queen Ashwarya, 51, Prince Nilajan, 22, Princess Shi Lu, 24, and Princess Sharada and Princess Shanti, sisters of King Birendra, and his brother-in-law, Kuma-Kaza, died on the spot. , Prince Dylandra, another member of the royal family, was seriously injured.
After the assault, Crown Prince Dipendra committed suicide and fell into a coma. He was later appointed as the new king by the Nepal Council of State. King Dipendra died on June 4 and his uncle Gyanendra succeeded him as king.
The outbreak of the royal bloody case caused an uproar in the international community. The succession of the suspect, Gyanendra, made the Nepalese people furious. Then they took to the streets to hold demonstrations and demand Gyanendra’s abdication. In the end, it turned into a tragic riot.
In the face of boiling public grievances, King Gyanendra changed the kindness of the royal family in the past, ordered severe suppression, and gradually embarked on the path of dictatorship, and even became pro-government after the dissolution of the government in 2005. Subsequently, the main political parties formed a seven-party alliance and jointly launched the second “people’s movement” with the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), which finally forced King Gyanendra to abdicate in 2008. This marked the end of the Shah dynasty, and Nepal finally ended the monarchy that lasted for 239 years.
However, despite ushering in a new era of the republic, Nepal’s productivity level is still stagnant. Due to the embarrassing location in the southern foothills of the Himalayas and India’s decades of siege and interception, and because of the turbulent domestic turmoil, Nepal is as happy as Bhutan, but economic development has always been a mess
Poverty brings not only the embarrassment of being stretched out but also the embarrassment of low dignity.
Therefore, when the $500 million red envelopes fell from the sky, there was no wave in Nepal’s heart. It was a typical self-deception. And this “sincere not to deceive Nepal” is the United States on the other side of the ocean.
In September 2017, the then-U.S. Deputy Secretary of State John Sullivan signed the “Millennium Challenge Company Agreement”, referred to as the MCC Agreement, in Washington with the former Congress Party government of Nepal.
According to the content of the MCC agreement, the United States will support Nepal in the construction of approximately 300 kilometers of 400 kV transmission lines and three substations.
For Nepal, which is poor and backward and is choked by India from time to time, the aid of the United States can be said to have been a timely help. But everyone on the earth knows that there is no free lunch in the world, and the United States does not provide charcoal professionally. Therefore, Nepal read the agreement carefully after rejoicing and felt that things were not that simple.
For example, once the agreement comes into force, it will be superior to Nepal’s domestic law; the conditions in the annex to the agreement need to be implemented with India’s consent; the final audit of MCC-supported projects is entirely the responsibility of the United States, and Nepal cannot participate.
This means that once Nepal accepts this treaty, it will not only recognize the extraterritoriality of the United States and surrender its own sovereignty, but also allow India to step in. So this agreement to be a father in Nepal and find a big brother has not yet reached the step of soliciting comments, and the majority of Nepalese people are once again out of anger.
They carried out the coffins with the words “MCC” written on them one after another, which meant that the funeral of the agreement couldn’t be more obvious.
In view of the fact that the domestic situation in Nepal has never ceased, in order to avoid the agreement of meat buns hitting dogs-there is no return, the United States specifically requires that the agreement must be approved by the Nepalese House of Representatives.
And because the agreement stipulates that while the United States invests US$500 million, Nepal also needs to invest US$130 million, so the House of Representatives disagreed at that time.
After all, under the framework of U.S. dollar oil hegemony, not to say 500 million U.S. dollars, that is 5 billion or 50 billion, is just a matter of turning on the money printing machine for a while and producing a few more money printing papers. But for poor Nepal, The US$130 million is definitely a costly expenditure.
Therefore, the more Nepal looks at the agreement, the more it feels like a lottery in a mall, but you must add money to receive gifts. In view of the fact that it might have to pay back to the United States, it is more tragic than the loss of the wife and the collapse of the army. Therefore, even if the political situation in Nepal changed in July this year, and Deuba, who is generally considered to be pro-American, became prime minister, the Nepal House of Representatives also adheres to the tenet of “a dead pig is not afraid of boiling water” and firmly disagrees with MCC
In the face of the stupid behavior of not taking money, the United States has shown a strong spirit of “hating iron but not steel”. In September, MCC Vice President Fatima Sumar made it clear that Nepal must make a decision as soon as possible for this “gift from the American people to the Nepalese people”, either through an agreement or abandoning it. The U.S. cannot wait indefinitely.
Then the Nepalese House of Representatives announced adjournment on October 29 and decided to postpone the approval of the MCC agreement.
Seeing Nepal’s ignorance, the U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asian Affairs Donald Lu and Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Kelly Kettering arrived in Kathmandu on November 17 and 18, respectively, and met with Nepal’s official and civil forces. Discuss the implementation of the MCC agreement.
With the United States becoming increasingly impatient, Donald Lu declared that the United States would not force Nepal to approve the MCC agreement, let alone set a deadline. But said that if Nepal does not accept the grant, the United States will give the money to other countries.
This is a statement that gave Nepal a sigh of relief. After all, it is too hot to thank the US$500 million. If Nepal really takes it, let alone burns the whole body, it will inevitably be burned.
However, judging from the repeated threats and threats made by the United States, since the money has been decided to give to Nepal, Nepal must accept it. After all, Nepal’s rights may not be enjoyed, but the obligations must be fulfilled, otherwise the old face of the United States. Where to put it? How does the chicken look at it? How does the cow think about it? How does the white elephant look at it? How will you get mixed up in the colonial circle in the future?
Therefore, Nepal is under great pressure, but it has to continue. Because for Nepal, the United States is too far away and China and India are too close. The United States can make promises and spread money wildly, but Nepal has to consider the factors of China and India, especially India.
Although the MCC agreement stipulates that the conditions stated in the annex need to be approved by India, this has given India a lot of faces, and the Indian Modi government is indeed determined to “abandon Russia and invest in the United States” in 2020 and become an indispensable follower of the United States. However, the US’s turmoil in India’s “backyard” and Nepal’s slamming songs have undoubtedly made India quite uncomfortable.
Although India is well aware that the fundamental purpose of the United States jumping up and down in Nepal is to target its northern neighbors. But the problem is that once Nepal becomes a new battlefield for Sino-US confrontation, it will inevitably “fire at the gates of the city and cause damage to the pond.” Although Nepal’s sloping terrain has given India the conditions to “say Cao Cao Cao Cao will arrive”, once Nepal’s landslides, India, which is “close to the water,” will inevitably bear the brunt.
Therefore, despite India’s long-term dissatisfaction with its northern neighbors, it still does not want Nepal to change. After all, this place is within easy reach of the core areas such as the capital New Delhi and the Ganges Plain. It is extremely easy to turn the war of aggression into the defense of the capital, recreating the classic scene of the defeat in 1962.
Therefore, for the big brother’s deviant operations, there are always 10,000 sacred cows running back and forth in India’s heart.
As far as Nepal is concerned, although “you sing and I will appear” in the political arena has never stopped, there may be a pro-US alliance in the future and promote the passage of the MCC agreement, but this cannot be used as a basis for Nepal and the United States to fight together because Nepal can ignore it. India is unhappy, but it can’t avoid the mighty power on the other side of the Himalayas.
To put it bluntly, Nepal is not Mongolia, let alone Turkey, and cannot afford the cost of failure.
It should be said that although the transition area is 147,000 square kilometers and the population of more than 26 million is not worth mentioning in front of India, Nepal has never lived more transparently than India.
As the birthplace of Buddhism, one of the three major religions, the history of Nepal is more splendid than ancient India.
Although wearing the hats of the four ancient civilizations, because of the “filial piety” of the Khyber Pass, conquerors from all walks of life rushed to “come in admirably”, pressing the ancient Indian civilization layer by layer into a beautiful meal. “Thousand-layer cakes”, ancient India also crawled forward in a thousand years of knees and greets.
And because the topography of the southern foothills of the Himalayas directly faces the Ganges Plain, the conquerors are always accustomed to including Nepal by the way. During the thousands of years of “integration” between Nepal and ancient India, the South Asian subcontinent has experienced Buddhism and Hinduism. Ebb and flow, Nepal has become a veritable Hindu country.
Because Nepal is dominated by mountainous terrain, it can maintain a certain degree of independence compared to ancient India. Although the Himalayas towered into the clouds, they could not stop the powerful radiation of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. For example, the Tubo Dynasty and Nepal were also included in the Sino-Tibetan language family.
In 1247, the Mongol Empire and the Tubo high-level “two-week alliance” marked the official inclusion of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau into the territory of the Central Plains dynasty, and Nepal became a vassal state of the Mongol Yuan Empire.
After the establishment of the Shah dynasty in 1768, it unified Nepal and invaded Tibet in 1789. It was subsequently killed by the Qing army in 1792 and became a vassal state of the Qing dynasty again.
At that time, the British East India Company was rampant, and it had already laid a world in the South Asian subcontinent and extended its devil’s claws to Nepal in the north.
In 1814, 30,000 British troops invaded Nepal. Although they suffered heavy losses, they eventually forced Nepal to sign the “Treaty of Segori” in 1815, cutting away more than one-third of Nepal’s land.
After this battle, the British fully realized the powerful combat effectiveness of Nepalese soldiers, so the British army has the Gurkha Army from then on. In Nepal’s frequent resistance, Britain finally decided to recognize Nepal’s independence in 1923 and signed a permanent treaty with it, on the condition that it retains a large number of privileges in Nepal.
This has also become the legal basis for India to influence Nepal.
Because the “India-Pakistani partition” in 1947 was a peaceful division of families rather than a merger with swords and guns, the founding of India has never experienced a tragic revolution or war. Compared with British India, the ruling class only changed the soup and not the medicine.
Therefore, after independence, the Indian team has never been ashamed but proud of its colonial history for more than 300 years. It is even more grateful for the British colonists, and there are endless and honorable words.
Therefore, in the “Indian Dream” setting of Nehru’s “Indian Dream” that after independence, India was “either impressive or disappearing, and would never accept second-rate roles.” Yes, it is not available in British India, and India must have it. The so-called “If there is a difficulty, we must go up, and if there is no difficulty, we must go up.” It seems logical that India inherits the rights of British India in Nepal.
In 1950, India and Nepal signed a treaty of peace and friendship, which fully inherited the privileges of British India in Nepal.
In 1951, the Nepalese royal family regained power with the support of India and implemented a constitutional monarchy, but Indian control exacerbated Nepal’s internal turmoil.
In 1962, Nepal stipulated Nepal as a Hindu monarchy in its constitution, and its relationship with India became closer.
Beginning with British India, it invaded Sikkim and Bhutan by the racial exchange. Nepalese are recognized as pawns. After India’s independence, the two countries cooperated more closely and eventually pushed India to completely annex Sikkim in 1975.
Nepal is also chilling under the control of India. Because it is surrounded by India on three sides and the Himalayas are so high, Nepal can be said to be controlled by India everywhere. Any dissatisfaction will immediately be retaliated by India.
In the Sino-Indian War of 1962, Nepal saw India’s foreign powers and the strong power of its neighbors in the north. Since then, Nepal, like other South Asian countries that have suffered from India for a long time, has begun to seek to improve its relations with its neighbors in the north.
Earlier, under the instigation of India, Nepal and its northern neighbors were at war on the sovereignty issue of Mount Everest, which also promoted the success of the northern neighbors’ summit from the northern slope of Mount Everest in 1960.
However, after the Sino-Indian War, Sino-Nepal relations quickly warmed up. For example, the Sino-Nepal Highway started construction in 1963 and successfully opened to traffic in 1967. The completion of the China-Nepal Highway freed Nepal from the embarrassing situation of relying entirely on India. Since then, it has had the confidence to challenge India. A typical incident is that in 1969, Nepal requested the Indian military advisory group in Nepal to withdraw.
Seeing that the overlord was unable to make a bow, in order to prevent Nepal from looking north, India turned to continue to draw Nepal, and India’s ubiquitous influence in Nepal is also an important external cause of Nepal’s turmoil.
In 1961, after King Mahendra announced the prohibition of all political party activities, the Nepal Congress Party and the Communist Party of Nepal began a constant struggle for political status.
In 1996, the Communist Party of Nepal launched the People’s War and the Nepal Civil War broke out, which lasted until 2005. After the murder of the Nepalese royal family in 2001, the United States barbarically invaded Nepal’s internal affairs in the name of anti-terrorism.
Under the combined pressure of the United States and India, the Nepalese royal family had to “return power to the people” in 2008.
The United States is intervening in Nepal’s internal affairs. One is threatening its northern neighbors, and the other is monitoring India. It can be said that both China and India are very upset. As Nepal has become a country in the cracks, it can be said that the threat is always there.
In order to avoid becoming cannon fodder in the game between the great powers, Nepal is determined to abandon the policy of sitting on the fence and building good relations with its northern neighbors.
Since 2003, the China-Nepal Highway has undergone a large-scale expansion, and the capacity has continued to increase. Nepal’s dependence on India has further reduced.
In 2006, the Qinghai-Tibet Railway was fully completed and then extended to Shigatse and other places; in 2019, at the “Belt and Road” summit forum, the China-Nepal railway project from Geelong to Kathmandu, which is about 170 kilometers long, was listed as a key point, which means that Nepal completely got rid of Indian influence is just around the corner.
In 2015, India was dissatisfied with Nepal’s promulgation of a new constitution, announcing an informal embargo on gasoline and diesel to Nepal. Then Nepal had to ask for help from its northern neighbors and received more generous support.
Beginning in 2017, the Chinese and Nepalese armed forces have held joint military training every year; in 2018, China and Nepal signed an economic and trade agreement allowing Nepal to use 4 seaports and 3 dry ports in its northern neighbors for international trade.
Compared with India’s close proximity, the northern neighboring countries are farther away in terms of humanistic distance, so Nepal is more at ease. Therefore, Nepal completely refused to take India as the third brother, and regained the disputed land without procrastinating, making India obviously very angry but helpless.
Nepal has now joined the printing deluxe package.
It can be said that although Nepal’s political situation has been turbulent for a long time, the special location determines that Nepal’s public opinion will inevitably end in a miserable situation if it goes south or west. Only the relationship with the north becomes more and more harmonious. The future of Nepal will only get better and better.
Therefore, in the face of the U.S.’s statement that Nepal will be a partner of the U.S. Indo-Pacific strategy in 2018, Nepal immediately clarified its denial, and its understanding of its own position is quite accurate.
The future of Nepal will definitely benefit from the “Belt and Road” initiative, while the troubled waters of the United States and India’s duplicity will be abandoned by history.
There are many omissions, please correct me.
I am Silent Night History and look forward to your attention.
Translated from the Headlines （Toutiao 头条新闻）
Author: Master worry（马斯特烦恼）
Some time ago, French President Macron made a lot of noise, saying that he would be the Virgin of the world, the leader of the white left, and lead the world to abolish the death penalty. This caused the whole world to discuss this topic.
Teacher Ma is very annoyed recently. He was slaughtered in the back by the master and allies, don’t tell me if you can’t find the place, the steps given by the master are still not easy to get down. He symbolically recalled the ambassador to the United States. Biden rushed back to take up the post with a phone call, and after insisting on it, he softened within a week, but there is no way. At least Biden made a phone call, I have to break my face. If you break your face to go down. Otherwise, if the master ignores you at all, you will don’t mention the embarrassment.
Macron said that people are hard to dismantle
Master worry (public account) feels that when such things happen, reputation will inevitably be affected. Originally, this comprehensive business was the bargaining chip for Teacher Ma’s re-election election next year. It could boast of the outstanding performance, but it suddenly disappeared. The hot pot sings, pops, it’s all gone. If you think about it, you will be flustered. If you want to be re-elected next year, I am afraid that you have to hurry up and make a name, create performance, change the topic, and restore the approval rate.
But what should we do to restore our dignity? Epidemic prevention and control? difficult! The epidemic is still raging and has long been lying flat, and there is no effective way to prevent it. Economic recovery? Thanks to God for being able to stabilize and don’t go back under the epidemic, how can you achieve results! Various reforms? The yellow vests are idle and have nothing to do, so how dare to find faults! What to do, Teacher Ma suddenly had a flash of inspiration, and he patted his forehead, there is it! Engaging in human rights, zero cost, zero resistance, just stand up and shout a few times, the topic will definitely be there, the appearance rate will definitely be there, and the embarrassment will definitely be saved!
So there came a leading global abolition. Huh…, have you abolished the death penalty long ago in many European countries? What are you still yelling about? It’s just nothing to look for.
No, no, don’t listen to Xiaobian’s nonsense
Well, let’s talk about the abolition of death seriously. We all know that the greatest human right is the right to life, not only for criminals but for victims, everyone has. If you damage the right of life of others, it means that if you end other people’s lives, then you will no longer be able to enjoy your own right to survive., this is the most basic fairness. If you owe money to pay off, kill and pay for life, has been the principle since ancient times.
But what we often see is that in Europe, especially in the countries of the Virgin in Western Europe, the human rights of criminals are always greater than those of victims! The logic is that the victim is dead, what else can you do? Can killing the criminal make the victim come alive? If you can’t survive, why kill the criminal? The criminal is also a human being. He also has human rights. We are a country of the Virgin, and we must protect the human rights of criminals! It is true to say that protecting the human rights of criminals is right, and it should be necessary. The fault lies in one degree. Excessive protection of criminals is a secondary injury to the victim’s family!
For example, in the country of Notre Dame, Norway, the prison is the standard of a seven-star hotel. You can play games, drink coffee, exercise, a study in class, go to the library, K song, watch movies, massage and sauna, you can think of it. There are services inside. Norwegian law stipulates that the maximum penalty is 21 years of imprisonment. You can enter and leave freely on holidays without any fault after staying for 5 years. It is as free as going to work if you stay in jail. You can be released early if you have performed well for 14 years! Please note that the maximum penalty is 21 years imprisonment, which means that no matter how serious the crime you commit, even if you kill the Norwegian with a dragon knife in your hand, you can only be imprisoned for 21 years. One more day is a violation of the criminal’s human rights. This is the law. According to the regulations, Master Anxiety (Official Account) finds it difficult to understand.
Luxurious interior view of Halden Prison, Norway
Then let’s look at a real case, the tragedy on Ute Island. On July 22, 2011, Norwegian Anders Behring Breivik first detonated a powerful car bomb in front of the Norwegian government office building. Then, they shot and killed people who participated in the summer camp of the Norwegian Labor Party Youth League on Ute Island, 40 kilometers west of the capital Oslo. A total of 77 people were killed and more than 300 were injured.
The scene of the Ute Island tragedy
The last 32-year-old murderer Anders Bellin Breivik was sentenced to 21 years in prison. In September 2013, Anders Bellin Breivik was admitted to the University of Oslo to study political science. On July 17, 2015, according to Norwegian media reports, Breivik obtained the qualification to study for a bachelor’s degree in political science from the University of Oslo and stayed in prison to study.
It is simply incomprehensible with our thinking that a heinous murderer, an adult with a normal mind and a subjective consciousness, with a clear purpose and motive for the killing, eventually led to 77 deaths, more than 300 injuries, and hundreds of family tragedies. People who enjoy a seven-star treatment in prison, and even got a bachelor’s degree! What kind of logic is this, and is there any reason?
Des Behring Breivik performs a Nazi salute in court
Since the Arab Spring in the Middle East by Western countries, the homes of the people in the Middle East have been destroyed, displaced, and a journey of fleeing has begun. Millions of refugees have entered Western European countries. Most of these refugees have no academic qualifications, no survival skills, and many extreme Islamic extremists. According to the logic of a normal country, in order to protect its own people, it will never be accepted indiscriminately. But Western countries are the country of the Virgin. To be the example of the Virgin on behalf of the world, it must be accepted unconditionally! As a result, terrorist attacks in western countries have been one after another in the past decade, and tragedies abound!
Except for some extremists, the perpetrators of the terrorist attacks had no survival skills, and they did not live well or could not survive. After learning about the treatment in a standard prison in a seven-star hotel, they were shocked. , This TM is much better than if I can’t survive all day long, haha, once I go in, I will never worry about eating and drinking, and the treatment will be excellent, what a great thing! So I just do things. If five years are not enough to enjoy, you have to sentence me to 21 years. If you go in as you wish, you can live for 21 years if you feel comfortable. If you are tired of living, you can enjoy the seven-star service. As long as you don’t mess around, you will be able to enter and exit normally after five years, and after 14 years, you can come and go again. hero. When a refugee hasn’t eaten or drink, he’s still worried all day long. Isn’t a seven-star hotel-standard prison not fragrant? Is it uncomfortable to eat and drink while lying down? Don’t mention this life is more moisturizing!
Things must be reversed. The original role of the law is to deter people who want to commit a crime. Let him think about the serious consequences of the crime and the severe punishments he will face. If the consequences are serious, then he may not dare to start. If there is a seven-star prison Waiting to enjoy, then I’m afraid of a bird! You said that life is too stressful, and you want to lie down if you don’t want to struggle? Simple, just do something…
This is the consequence of the over fighting and abolishing death of the Virgin of the country. Abolishing death is to condone crime, and even encourage it! It is necessary to protect the human rights of criminals, but criminals cannot be treated as fathers. Who will protect the rights and interests of victims?
In addition to the abolition of death in Western Europe, there is another factor that cannot be ignored, that is, Christianity.
People in Western European countries are basically Christians. They believe in the Bible and believe in God. The criminal commits such a heinous crime, God will not forgive him, he must go to hell after death, and suffer in hell! The evil ones have their own punishments, and Jesus will preside over justice, so why should I care so much!
The deceased has entered heaven. This is the best destination. What can be more demanding? Is there a better place than heaven?
Besides, from the perspective of law enforcement, law enforcement should also have the right to enter heaven after death. You can’t let the law enforcement kill the criminal, and then let the law enforcement commit the crime and go to hell after death, right? The rights and interests of law enforcement officials must also be protected. The law enforcers said I would not do it, whoever liked it would do it.
Laws without deterrence, excessive protection of criminals’ human rights, and prisons with seven-star hotel standards have made Western Europe a paradise for criminals, and criminals have enjoyed themselves. This is the true aspect of a human fist and dish cooking advocated by Western countries.
We can’t help asking, how did a good country become like this? Because Western countries are facing huge difficulties in recent years, let’s take a look at the growth of global GDP in the past 10 years:
In 2010, the total global GDP was 66 trillion US dollars;
The total global GDP in 2020 is 84 trillion US dollars;
A total increase of 18 trillion US dollars;
Among them, China’s GDP increased from 590 million to 1.47 billion, an increase of 8.8 trillion;
The United States has grown from 14.5 trillion to 20.9 trillion, an increase of 6 trillion;
Together, China and the United States have grown by 14.8 trillion yuan.
Look at the major European countries:
France’s GDP in 2010 was 2.6 trillion, and its GDP in 2020 is still 2.6 trillion, with zero growth in total GDP! Excluding the CPI factor of rising prices, the actual growth is negative.
Britain’s GDP in 2010 was 2.5 trillion, and in 2020 it was 2.7 trillion, an increase of 0.2 trillion. Excluding the CPI factor, the actual growth is actually negative.
Germany’s GDP was 3.4 trillion in 2010 and 3.8 trillion in 2020, an increase of 0.4 trillion. Excluding the CPI factor, it is also a negative growth!
All in all, the economic development of European countries has stagnated in the past decade, and the overall salary level and national welfare and welfare have basically not increased. However, the rich are getting richer and richer, and the total wealth is only so much. When some people rise, others fall. This is why the French gasoline price rose by 4 cents, which caused the vigorous yellow vest movement.
Speaking of this, I have to mention the family history of Western countries. In the past, Britain and France and other Western European countries carried strong boats and guns, looted and colonized the world, and found a wealth of homes. A good situation of leading technology. But now, the accumulation of human blood that has been plundered for hundreds of years is almost exhausted, and the technological advantages derived from the looted capital are gradually disappearing. Without new economic growth points, the difficulty of direct looting is also increasing, except The United States can still grab it, and it is almost impossible for other countries. The economy has not improved, politics is busy in internal fighting, and the military has stalled. And the leaders of Western countries have to do something in order to create performance and keep a name in history, right? So I fell in love with shouting slogans.
The poor house leaks in the night rain, the boat is late and hits the wind, the originally sluggish economy, there is another new crown epidemic, and they directly took off their underwear!
So Western politicians can’t do anything, and it’s useless to be in a hurry. They have to have some decent performance. I’ve thought about everything, the only thing that can come up with a little bit of political success is all kinds of slogans. If you can’t do it practically, then do something fictitious, such as human boxing, dish cooking, female boxing, animal protection, environmental protection, homosexuality, marijuana, Transgender people, etc. So in recent years, we have always seen various exotic policies introduced by Western countries.
Hungary was besieged by the 17 EU countries because of its opposition to gay marriage and became a target of public criticism. Why besiege Hungary? Because this is also a performance, you say this is ridiculous.
In the past, these Virgin countries must be destroyed by these slogans, friends must stay awake, and don’t follow it!
Translated from the Headlines （Toutiao 头条新闻）
Author: Ming said the world（鸣说天下）
Regardless of living standards, economic development, and military power, when did you realize that our country has become different?
To measure the progress of a country, the most important indicators have never been economic, military, and material levels. Taking the economy as an example, Japan used to be the second-largest economy in the world. Military, Russia’s military power can compete with the United States. In terms of living conditions, The per capita national income of many developed countries is not low, but can these countries win the respect of the world?
To put it bluntly, when these countries are faced with slander and suppression by Western countries headed by the United States, are there more than 80 countries and multiple international organizations supporting them? There are even more than a dozen countries eager to give their voices for China alone; which of these countries dare to start dialogue with the United States on the basis of “strength”? Dare to issue “two lists” to the United States and ask the United States to complete the lists before discussing cooperation? Which country can allow the United States to request talks many times and do everything possible to “manage and control risks” and avoid “conflicts” between the two countries?
There is only one such country, and that is China!
After the meeting between the Chinese and US leaders, Biden and White House officials agreed that the Sino-US dialogue was “frank and sincere” and could effectively manage the competition between China and the United States. Robert Rothstein, an expert on Sino-US relations at Boston College, said: This is a different China. The Chinese seem to be saying: Well, if you want to be tough, then we will wait until you stop.
There is some truth to what the American experts said. This is indeed a “different China.” Our waist to the United States has become even harder. We can confidently warn the United States to “not play with fire and self-immolate”! We can solemnly declare to the world: If certain forces continue to provoke and persecute, or even break through the red line, we will take decisive measures! This is the strongest sound of our time!
But think about it carefully. Compared with before, we seem to have nothing “different”. In the Sino-US “Taiwan Strait confrontation” in the 1990s, our military strength was far inferior to that of the United States, and the total tonnage of all warships was still Less than an aircraft carrier formation in the United States, we even plan to requisition thousands of civilian ships to go to the Taiwan Strait. The most advanced missile is Dongfeng-15, and the Air Force is still F-7 and F-8. But under such circumstances, we use the determination to move forward. And the courage to defend the home and the country forced the two aircraft carrier formations of the United States to retreat.
In terms of the people-centered national strategy, we have nothing “different”. During the war in Libya ten years ago, we dispatched 12 military aircraft, 5 freighters, 1 warship, and even chartered 35 foreign aviation passenger planes. After boarding 11 foreign cruise ships, in just 12 days, 35,860 Chinese compatriots were successfully evacuated, known in history as the “Libya Rescue”. The scene of tens of thousands of Chinese facing the sea and singing the national anthem in unison brought tears to the eyes of many people.
The civil war in Yemen broke out six years ago. We mobilized all parties and even dispatched naval frigates. In the billowing smoke, we brought 449 Chinese compatriots back to the motherland and even helped 225 foreign citizens from 10 countries successfully evacuate. In our eyes No matter Chinese or foreigners, the essence is the same, because we only believe in one point, that is, a community with a shared future for mankind!
This year, our country launched the “Spring Seed Operation”. We donated vaccines to countries around the world free of charge, but there is only one condition: the local Chinese must fight first! As of June this year, we have helped people in more than 150 countries and more than 1.18 million Chinese compatriots drifting overseas to vaccinate. As long as you are Chinese, no matter where you go or what difficulties you encounter, please remember: Behind you, there is a strong motherland!
Up to now, in order to improve the living standards of the people, we have carried out poverty alleviation, rural revitalization, and prosperity for all. We have repaired railways and highways to plateaus, mountains, and even Southeast Asia and Europe. We have not only achieved a well-off life for the whole people but also walked in On the road to a higher level, how are we different from the original?
What the American experts said is different and understandable, because we are no longer the China we used to be. We have an aircraft carrier, a 10,000-ton large drive, a J-20 or even a J-35, and we have Dongfeng-21, Dongfeng-25, Dongfeng 41 ballistic missiles, Longsword cruise missiles, and Eagle Strike series anti-ship missiles. With AWACS, armed helicopters, and Yun-20 large transport aircraft, we also have the “Chinese Aegis”-052C and 052D guided-missile destroyers. We are no longer the China of the South China Sea collision incident, nor the China when the Yugoslav embassy was bombed. From this point of view, we are indeed “different”.
You have to be quietly top the top, and then stunning the world.
We did it. We won the respect of everyone. We saw the “compromise” of the United States. The United States began to claim that it did not seek to “change” China. Biden began to make concessions on the Taiwan Strait issue, saying that it “has no intention of conflict with China.” The U.S. Treasury Department began to consider lowering tariffs on China. Britain, Japan, Australia, and the European Union have adjusted their strategies towards China and can’t wait to show goodwill to us. At this time, do you really realize that we have become different!
We have not only made it amazing the world, we have also achieved a “soldier who defeats others without fighting.”
So who has the goal of Western countries changed to? In the short term, it is Russia.
Recently, under the influence of the European refugee crisis, Western countries have torn off their masks of hypocrisy. The refugee policy has changed from welcoming to containment and deportation, and even aimed at Belarus and Russia, a new round of sanctions against Belarus, the participating countries started from Poland and the Baltic countries, and gradually spread to Germany, the United Kingdom, France, and even the European Union. As soon as it sounded sanctions against Russia, the United States also joined in without surprise.
On November 16, the EU foreign ministers met and reached a consensus: announced sanctions on Belarus, including but not limited to sanctions on Belarusian government officials, combating Belarusian airlines, etc. The United States also announced that it is preparing for “follow-up sanctions.” Belarus announced that it would conduct a three-day “temporary maintenance” on the oil pipeline connecting Poland and many other European countries.
Recently, the situation has further heated up. Countries such as Poland and Lithuania have recently transported military equipment in border areas and deployed more than 10,000 troops; Belarus is Russia’s last barrier, and Putin certainly cannot stand by and watch the actions of Western countries. Recently, two Russian Tu-22M3 bombers are patrolling the sky over Belarus. Russia and Belarus have held several military exercises in the border area to deal with NATO’s “possible invasion”.
In the face of the blow from the Western world, can Russia stand it?
Looking at Russia’s military strength, it can be called the “first echelon”. In terms of air strike force, Russia has more than 4,000 fighters, ranking second in the world. Bombers include Tu-160, Tu-95, and Tu-22M. , There are Su-24, Su-25, and MiG series fighters, airborne early warning aircraft have A-50, IL-80, and IL-76 and other large transport aircraft.
In the navy, Russia has four major fleets: the Northern Fleet, the Pacific Fleet, the Black Sea Fleet, and the Baltic Fleet. It has an aircraft carrier that can carry more than 20 carrier-based aircraft, 12 destroyers, and 9 “Dreadnought-class” anti-submarine ships. The “Kirov-class” cruiser has a displacement of more than 20,000 tons, and there are three Glorious-class cruisers of more than 10,000 tons. In addition, Russia also has 12 strategic nuclear submarines and more than 20 offensive nuclear submarines.
Don’t forget that Russia’s nuclear power also makes the United States very jealous. Judging from this set of military power, the total military power of all European countries can hardly compete with Russia.
But economically, Russia’s economy is highly dependent on exports. At the beginning of this century, Russia’s economic growth rate once exceeded 6%, foreign trade increased from more than 140 billion U.S. dollars to more than 350 billion U.S. dollars, and the inflation rate once fell below 9%. With the outbreak of the Ukraine crisis, after Russia regained the Crimea region strongly, it was subjected to seven consecutive years of economic blockade and sanctions by the United States and other Western countries. Last year, Russia’s GDP was even less than 1.5 trillion U.S. dollars, and the economic downturn also led to Because of the lack of military investment, Russia’s military expenditure last year was only more than 60 billion U.S. dollars, which was not as good as India’s.
Under Putin’s leadership, Russia changed its mindset and tilted its military resources towards supersonic weapons, focusing on the development of strategic missiles, strategic nuclear submarines, and other defense forces to compete with the United States. At the same time, with the help of China, Russia’s energy exports have further increased, the economic relief has increased Russia’s resistance to a certain extent.
In the current international situation, China and Russia can directly threaten the existence of US hegemony. With regard to China, the United States has implemented a series of repressive policies, from trade sanctions to epidemic prevention and control, to military deterrence, but we survived. After that, the United States not only failed to achieve its goals, but its reputation in the international arena was greatly damaged and the domestic situation worsened. The United States realized that conflicts with China were irrational, so it targeted Russia.
But has the US completely abandoned its strategy of suppressing China? Not at all. With regard to the Taiwan issue, the United States is still “not willing” to give up this card, because the essence of the Taiwan issue is still a Sino-U.S. issue. If the United States abandons Taiwan, it may form a “domino” effect, which will inevitably affect U.S. international strategy. At the same time, in arms sales and trade, the United States can obtain huge economic benefits in Taiwan. On the Taiwan issue, what is the “vision” of the United States? It is to maintain the status quo and continue to constrain China with the Taiwan issue. This is an irreconcilable contradiction with our goal.
Under the constant pressure of the United States, China and Russia continue to deepen the relations between the two countries. The relationship between the two countries is at the best stage in history. We are well aware of the truth about the death of the lips and the coldness of the teeth. Faced with the suppression of the United States, Russia you must hold on!
Translated from the Headlines （Toutiao 头条新闻）
Author: Eagle Pigeon Analysis（鹰鸽分析）
The defeat is irreversible. The next step is to withdraw and rebuild the line of defense in a respectable manner. This is a difficult decision that the United States has to make.
We are more often looking at the situation from the perspective of China. The Taiwan Strait is at war, the South China Sea is turbulent, and the young people dare to provoke China. There is a sense that the tree wants to be quiet but the wind is not stopping. In terms of strategic posture, China seems to be in a state of affairs. Very unfavorable location. Is this really the case? Well, let’s look at the situation from the perspective of the Americans from another angle. America’s life seems to be worse than ours.
The Chinese perspective is staring at China’s periphery; the American perspective is staring at the world.
From the United States’ global perspective, the interests involved are by no means limited to China. Eastern Europe and the Middle East are all nodes of interest that the United States can’t give up. Eastern Europe is the bridgehead for the American strategy to advance eastward. The drastic changes in Eastern Europe once dismembered the Soviet Union and can end U.S. hegemony today; the Middle East is a battleground for U.S. sea power and U.S. dollar hegemony. Even if it is an imperial grave, the United States has to go through it.
In recent times, Eastern Europe has been at war. NATO and Russia’s the Black Sea are constantly confronting each other. The EU’s refugee crisis and conflict in Belarus have intensified, and there is also a worsening Ukrainian crisis. For the United States, Eastern Europe has always been a trump card for the United States to suppress the European Union and suppress Russia.
How does the United States use Eastern Europe to suppress the European Union? One of the most important reasons why the European Union is unable to form a joint force is that the development of Eastern and Western Europe is not balanced. The overall development of Eastern European countries lags behind that of Western Europe. Therefore, the European Union has many advantages and disadvantages in Eastern Europe. It is this imbalance that makes it difficult for the EU to form synergy.
The United States clearly sees this point, so it incites Eastern European countries to create troubles in Eastern Europe, to contain Western Europe’s energy, and to interrupt the development of the European Union. For example, Belarus controls the lifeline of EU countries’ natural gas supply. At the same time, it also kidnapped the European Union to a certain extent, such as Lithuania. Provoking China on the Taiwan issue is of a certain kidnapping nature, and EU favoritism and asylum have adversely affected China-EU relations.
Although the United States has turned the clouds and rains in Eastern Europe, and instigated and manipulated the situation can achieve the strategic effect of killing one stone with one stone, but at the same time, the United States has also plunged itself into turmoil in Eastern Europe, and it is difficult to extricate itself. It may not matter in the past, but in the current climate of competition among major powers, especially the strategic game between China and the United States, Eastern Europe is holding the United States in check. The United States is forced to fight on two fronts, fighting on one side and seeking relaxation on the other side. This seems to have become the norm.
In the Middle East, the United States originally had a big layout. With 9.11 as the lead, the United States resolutely opened the global anti-terrorism curtain. The first attack on Afghanistan, the Afghan War brought Afghanistan and Pakistan into the layout and cut off the connection between the Middle East and East Asia and South Asia from the east. Then the soldiers quickly captured Iraq and connected the western part of the Persian Gulf. Then the black hand stretched out. Syria, Russia’s only support in the Middle East, although the United States did not take Syria as expected due to Russia’s intervention, from the overall situation, only Iran is left in the Middle East oil-producing countries, and the rest are all under the control of the United States.
The Middle East is an important oil-producing area in the world. Most of the oil is exported to the United States, Japan, and Western Europe, accounting for more than half of the world’s total exports. It has a huge impact on the world’s energy supply and the development of the world economy. The United States will naturally not give up this advantageous grasp of controlling the world. At the same time, the United States has achieved control of the Middle East, which undoubtedly divides the three continents of Europe, Asia, and Africa into three parts, and controls the land passages between the three continents of Europe, Asia, and Africa, and then leads the trade to sea transportation. Shipping is the United States’ world, isn’t this the strength of the United States?
It’s a pity that the United States has a huge layout, but in the end, it’s not as good as the sky. The United States’ strategic encirclement of Iran is only invisible. Instead, it plunged the United States into the quagmire of the two wars in Afghanistan and Iraq at the same time, overthrowing the Saddam regime, and on the contrary, made the Shiites of Iraq and Iran closer together. The U.S. forces in Afghanistan eventually had to withdraw in a massive defeat. The forces that had withdrawn were unacceptable in Pakistan and Central Asia, and the U.S. seemed to be back to the original point in the end.
As Iran is still there and the Iranian nuclear issue is still there, the United States has to engage in a long-term confrontation and confrontation with Iran in the Persian Gulf. Talking and chatting have become the norm. The Middle East is like a chicken rib. It is a pity to discard it, and it is tasteless. What is even more abhorrent is that it is strategically constraining the United States.
In addition to the two points of Eastern Europe and the Middle East, the United States now most wants to win the Asia-Pacific region. There is Russia in Eastern Europe, Iran in the Middle East, and China in East Asia. Although the United States emphasized the need to transfer 60% of the U.S. military’s military power to the Asia-Pacific region as early as 2012 when it proposed the strategy of returning to the Asia-Pacific region, the frequent incidents of the U.S. military in recent years are largely related to the high-intensity deployment of the U.S. military. Still seem stretched.
After Trump upgraded his return to the Asia-Pacific strategy to an Indo-Pacific strategy, India and the Taiwan Strait have become the two core nodes in the entire US framework. The Indo-Pacific strategy will no longer exist without India. If the Taiwan Strait is lost, the chain of containment built by the United States in the coastal waters of China will be completely shattered. The United States will no longer have a foothold within the first island chain; what is even more abhorrent will also be on the geography. With a series of chain reactions, the China, Japan, and South Korea sectors will truly take shape.
According to modern history, China’s greatest security threat comes from the sea. Therefore, China uses its strength to completely offset the advantages achieved by the United States around China. All military base groups that the U.S. military can support in the Western Pacific are all covered by the PLA’s long-range conventional missiles; The US aircraft carrier battle group is also facing the most severe survival crisis in history. The People’s Liberation Army has basically established a maritime defense depth of 2,000 kilometers beyond China’s coastline.
It is precise because of this improvement based on the strength that the Taiwan Strait has been completely under the control of mainland China, and the initiative for war and peace is in the hands of the People’s Liberation Army. Although the United States is frantically playing the Taiwan card, it is about Taiwan’s final destiny. The United States has long been unable to recover. Today is no longer an era when the United States can stop China from realizing the process of reunifying the motherland by dispatching a few aircraft carrier battle groups. Based on its strength, the United States has to propose to control risks.
In summary, under China’s vision, China has achieved regional advantages and has the confidence to fight and reconcile. The United States is different. Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Indo-Pacific are fighting on the three fronts.
Therefore, no matter how unwilling the United States is, it has to admit this reality and face it squarely. The United States cannot withdraw from Eastern Europe and the Middle East, and the strength of the Indo-Pacific region is difficult to exert strong pressure on China. Therefore, the seemingly crazy attack by the United States on China has no effect, and the United States’ defeat is a foregone conclusion.
In the past few years, the United States was extremely confident. In 2012, it proposed a strategy of returning to the Asia-Pacific. After three years of preparation, the United States launched the first round of large-scale attacks on China in the financial sector in 2015. In 2016, China and the United States launched the post-Cold War world in the South China Sea. The largest maritime standoff in China, the 2018 Sino-US trade war brought this game to a climax. It took the United States 6 years to play the cards in its hands. The United States looked back and found that the United States could no longer defeat China.
There is unpredictable weather, and people have misfortunes and blessings. The new crown epidemic suddenly and quickly swept the world. The United States has fallen in this world war against the epidemic. The internal problems of the United States that were originally hidden underwater have been completely intensified in a short period of time. The United States has problems with its economy and its social conflicts are becoming increasingly acute. Participation within the government continued to unfold, and then to rising inflation, debt ceilings, supply chain crises, and so on.
The United States is currently facing internal and external troubles. Internal problems are intensifying. External third-line operations require both fish and bear’s paws. However, the two are not available at the same time. In the end, there is a high probability that it will only be a waste of water.
It seems that the situation of the United States is not as good as we imagined, and the advantage that the United States has in this century’s game is not as great as we imagined. We return to the small game of the Sino-US West Pacific game. The overall situation of the Taiwan Strait has been determined, and the United States is unable to recover; on the broad ocean west of the Second Island Chain, the overall defeat of the United States is a foregone conclusion.
The situation is stronger than that of people, and the general situation is gone. The best way left is how to retreat in a decent way and reshape the line of defense. The United States is now taking action.
The United States has created a lot of small environments in the context of the strategic climate of competition among major powers. From the Five Eyes alliance to the four-nation mechanism of the United States, Japan, India, Australia, Australia, and the Pacific, all the spearheads are directed at China. But what is very puzzling is that the United States has secretly engaged Britain and Australia with an Orcus outside of the above mechanism without knowing it, and even promised Australia to sell nuclear submarines, which is not afraid to offend France, the European Union. A vital ally.
In addition, what is even more puzzling is that in March of Alaska, the United States, which spoke condescendingly to China from its position of strength, changed its normal state and proactively sought talks with China under the circumstances of China’s “two lists” requirements. Eventually, promote the meeting between the leaders of China and the United States, and make avoiding conflicts the core of the meeting.
This approach is not American, and there must be demons if something goes wrong. Behind this move of the United States, there must be a big move:
More than ten days ago, six U.S. congressmen visited Taiwan on a U.S. Navy C-40A administrative plane. Among them, John Corning, a U.S. senator, is a U.S. arms dealer in addition to his public identity as a U.S. Republican senator. The spokesperson of the United States; combined with the news disclosed by the media on the island a few days ago, the United States intends to sell the stock of second-hand weapons withdrawn from the Middle East to the other side. It can be seen from this that Professor Qiu Yi’s claim that all US Senators visit for money is not unfounded.
When the United States is unable to recover from the Taiwan Strait, the best option is to squeeze the final value of Taiwan, China to the maximum. For American arms dealers, if you have money to make money and clear your inventory, you can kill two birds with one stone. Why not do it?
The U.S. has a big problem now. The U.S. dollar has released a large amount of water. Theoretically, the U.S. dollar index should have gone down. But now the U.S. dollar index has soared abnormally. After the peak of 95, Japan has also released a large amount of water again; now the debt ceiling and inflation are a record high, a supply chain crisis, and many signs indicate that the United States is likely to speed up the process of returning the dollar. The United States has always done this in history. Now there is only one catalyst left.
This is obviously a move for the United States to save itself.
In addition, the United States is now in contact with China, focusing on strengthening Sino-US economic and trade cooperation, which can be confirmed from the “four aspects” recently put forward by the US President’s National Security Adviser Sullivan. In the past two years, the United States called for a complete “decoupling” from China in the world. Now, after a circle, it will mention “re-linking”. This step is more like abandoning the car to protect the handsome. The United States has brought its allies into the ditch. Excessively setting aside allies and talking with China, everything is still centered on the interests of the United States.
This series of signs indicate that the United States is now planning a decent retreat. At the time when China is unable to return to the sky, the United States will put Japan on top of the front, save its strength, and quietly withdraw its strength to the second line. The re-purging of the defense line on the second line, the strategic transformation of the US Navy, and the establishment of Orcus are all-powerful illustrations.
This may be the real intention of the United States.
Translated from the Headlines （Toutiao 头条新闻）
Author: A Dou is not stupid（阿斗不傻）
Why is Germany being gang-fought in both world wars? In addition to the struggle for hegemony, what has been overlooked is the struggle for the system
Why was Germany being gang-fought in both world wars? Looking at the attributes of the British, French and American countries, you can understand the key
Since the reunification of Germany, except for the years when Bismarck was in power, Germany has appeared as a spoiler in the world structure.
Unlike the United States, which rose almost at the same time, the United States, where isolationism has prevailed for a long time, did not participate too much in the European hegemony in the era of great development. This of course has something to do with the geographical location of Germany. Germany, in the four European wars, is inevitably crisis-ridden when it is weak, and uneasy when it is strong.
There is no other reason. All its opponents have unique talents, but Germany does not.
Russia has vast territories, Britain and France have endless colonies, and even Italy can cross the Mediterranean to find new ground if they want. Thus, there is Bismarck’s famous saying:
The major problems of this era cannot be solved by speeches and resolutions… These problems can only be solved by iron and blood.
Bismarck, who knows this well, chose to keep a low profile, in order to wait for changes to occur.
So what is it that makes Germany have to be tough? The answer is related to the system dispute.
(The prologue of the new era)
One: The world system before the great nautical era
Before the great nautical era, the two ends of the Eurasian continent were compared.
Compared with the Chinese civilization in the far east and the Arab civilization in the Middle East, European civilization is undoubtedly an existence like a turtle.
In the era of farming, the land of Europe was not the richest land, but the richest China and India in the East.
In order to live a better life in Europe, where the output is barren, it can only do the trade!
Who do you trade with? Of course, it is the rich East.
But there is an Arab civilization in the middle, and if you want to trade, it will definitely make money for the Arab civilization. At that time, on the Eurasian continent, the East produced materials, the Arabs were the middlemen, and the Europeans were the consumers.
In this trade circulation, the Europeans are undoubtedly the most disadvantaged.
From this logic, we can understand the root cause of Europeans’ thirst for wealth, and the answer is: poor.
If you understand this, you can understand why “Marco Polo’s Travels” can cause such a big wave in Europe, and the golden east has become a place that countless Europeans yearn for.
The richness of the east and the poorness of the west under the mainland trading system was a projection of the era of the world’s land power system at that time.
(The World Island is the center of civilization)
Two: The world system after the great nautical era.
The thirst for wealth makes Europeans feel helpless for the Arabs in the Middle East occupying the status of a trade transit, and at the same time, they continue to think of ways.
The invasion of the Mongols caused the Black Death, the epidemic of the Black Death, and gradually loosened religious shady!
Europeans discovered that the Almighty God could not save people in sickness, so they began to reflect on religion.
The subsequent Renaissance originated from the Italian city-states, let the shadow of religion fade, European science and technology gradually awakened, and the germination and development of capitalism also highlighted the strength of individuals.
The Europeans, who had a strong spirit of dual force, began the era of a great voyage.
Wealth is the driving force of everything, trade is the cause of everything, gold and silver treasures are what you think in your heart, plundering and killing are nothing more than means.
Europeans with a bible in the left hand and a musket in the right hand have no disadvantage to the Native Americans, Africans, and Southeast Asians.
They built the earliest global trade network and brought the era into the era of sea power.
With the expansion and improvement of the global trade network, the early colonial countries became richer, more capital developed, more trade demands, and more commodity needs.
Then, the industrial revolution began.
The arrival of the Industrial Revolution has allowed the world’s productivity to achieve a leap. After the leap, the output has increased, the products have increased, and what should we do if we can’t sell them?
For capitalists, the pursuit of profit is the source of motivation. Therefore, opening up markets has become a new proposition following the industrial revolution. In this new proposition, countless major European countries have become pioneers.
(Europe in 1828)
Three: British and French colonial empires and the world market
Owning colonies gave Europe a prerequisite for the industrial revolution.
There are not enough resources, there are colonies, not enough population, and black slaves are oversupplied, all of which have eliminated the constraints that originally restricted the development of Europe.
But after it disappeared, the internal competition in Europe is still great.
In order to further expand the living space, Britain, and France, the two largest European countries, took advantage of their strength and seaport advantages to lead globalization belonging to Europe after expanding their colonies.
In this globalization, the most important thing is undoubtedly the navy.
Maritime trade is the key to obtaining the market, and a strong navy is the guarantee of the market.
Britain and France, with countless markets, combined with a powerful navy, became the two most dazzling countries in the colonial empire.
Britain is a country that implements sea power. Although France still attaches importance to land power, their yearning for sea power allows them to pay equal attention to land and sea.
Where was Germany at that time?
(Fragmented Holy Rome)
Four: The tragedy of Germany’s four wars.
Germany, at the core of Europe, occupies the most core area of Europe, where there are countless coal and iron, enough for industrial development.
But the geographical location in the center of Europe, and the political pull from it, made Germany always a geographical concept rather than a country.
The Holy Roman Empire, the loose political status quo, made this group of divided countries not have much right to speak in the European continent. Even with powerful states such as Prussia and Austria, they are still no better than Britain and France, which have already completed state centralization.
The long history of feudalism brought Germany’s reunification too late.
When the Industrial Revolution flourished among the small states in Germany, Germany had a united internal drive.
Under the guidance of this internal drive, Austria and Prussia respectively devised plans for the unification of Germany, the Big and Small German plans.
A Little German Project with Prussia as its core, and a Greater German Project with Austria as its core.
In the end, it was Prussia, a military country with a stronger centripetal force, that won the victory.
After rounds of dynasty wars and political compromises after the war, the German Empire was born and then began a great leap forward in development.
From the moment it was born in 1871, to 10 years after the reunification in 1881.
Earth-shaking changes have taken place in Germany in the past decade, and the doubling of total industrial output has made Germans more and more appetite.
Germany, which could not suppress impulsive appeals, turned to watch the world market.
But the world at that time was already the era of Britain and France.
The German who looked around and did not return shouted his own slogan: We also demand a site under the sun.
This is a long-standing land-powered country, after it became strong, it shouted to the world.
We are coming.
(The Kaiser is crowned)
Five: Eat and sleep in Germany.
What is the most important thing to find a place under the sun? The answer is the Navy.
As a result, Germany began to expand its navy, as well as the expansion of the world market. Germany’s actions gave Britain a sense of vigilance.
Britain and Germany have started a protracted naval race. If you build ten iron-clad ships, I will build 15 ships, and if you build 30 ships, I will build 35 ships.
With its strong national power, Germany and the United Kingdom competed against each other, making the United Kingdom miserable, and then gave up the once arrogance.
Abandoned arrogant Britain, found his mortal enemy France and said: How about we talk about uniting against Germany?
At that time, France, because of the death in the German War of Reunification and the deliberate suppression of Bismarck, became the iron orphan of Europe. When they were worried about their isolation and helplessness, Britain came to the door. There is no reason for France not to ease relations.
Soon afterward, the death of Bismarck and the radical policies of William II showed the British plan to win over Russia.
France, a usury imperialist country, is getting better and better with Russia because of its borrowing and lending relationship.
Germany gave up signing the “Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty” in 1890, which also gave Britain an opportunity.
The three countries of Britain, France, and Russia formed an alliance in the face of common enemies.
In the Bismarck era, Germany’s good international environment through mediation disappeared, and it had to get closer and closer to its sister country, the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The European countries on the two continents have formed a blood alliance because of their cousins, and jointly confronted Britain, France, and Russia, which are dominated by sea power.
But is the land power country really willing to lose the source of wealth creation? of course not.
Immediately, the First World War began based on the re-division of the vast colony.
Behind a world, hegemony is the battle between the sea power and the land power, in order to divide the world.
After the two sides fought for a few years, another sea power country that was out of the way came out to disrupt the situation. This country is the United States where Ma Han, the author of “On Sea Power” is located.
The three sea powers joined forces to suppress the challenge of the land power.
Germany’s first attempt failed.
The ensuing World War II was a continuation of the First World War. The failure of the first challenge left the Germans frustrated for many years without changing their ambitions.
The United States, a newly-born maritime power, has also watched for a long time the large number of colonies owned by Britain and France because that is the world market he watched.
What the United States wants is the free world market after the extension of sea power, and what Britain and France want is the colonial world market. The conflict of ideas has given them a gap between them, and it has also given the United States a heart of calculation.
So, with the help of the United States!
After the Great Depression, the Soviet Union continued to expand its industrial capacity and became the largest power in Europe.
With the support of the American capital, Germany has returned to the ranks of military powers.
Then was Hitler’s turnout, an iron fist attacked.
The German soldiers pointed out that Poland was annihilated, France was kneeling, Britain was stubbornly resisting, and the Soviet Union was fighting against each other. Behind a devastating world war, there is a new sea power, a global game that has transformed international demands.
After this game, the sea power headed by the United States, Britain, and France defeated the land power, and the world trade sea power headed by the United States defeated the sea power of the colonial empire headed by Britain and France.
The country of origin of “On Sea Power” won the final victory and reaped the world they wanted.
(United States Montana-class battleship)
Epilogue: The World Island returns to the center.
Why did World War I and World War II fight Germany for dinner and sleep? It is the competition between the two major systems of land and sea.
So why the dispute over the land-sea system is essentially related to the displacement of the world island.
The world before the great nautical era, the world island of Eurasia, is the center of civilization and the center of the world.
However, in the era of great navigation and the rise of the Industrial Revolution, the Eurasian continent, which once occupied the center of the world, although still important, is not as important as the regions on both sides of the Atlantic.
The American continent on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, the European continent, led the era, and the second came first, which made the world center shift.
Asia and the Middle East, which were originally leading, gradually lag behind the times, allowing sea power to surpass land power and become the protagonist in the historical process.
But this is only one page. Human history has gone through millions of years, and the civilizations that always dominate the protagonist all come from Eurasia.
The vast area, countless population, and splendid civilization bred will eventually be revived.
Today’s world may be a world in which land and sea rights have been reversed once again.
The return of the economic center to the Asia-Pacific is accompanied by the return of the political center to the Asia-Pacific.
When the Eurasian continent realizes the Far East revival, a country with both land power and sea power will regain its confidence in the past and enter a new era.
This time, the tragedy belonging to Germany will certainly not repeat itself.