Translated from the Headlines （Toutiao 头条新闻）
Author: King Qin is not surnamed Qin
India and China have been in conflict over the border of Tibet. In order to avoid unnecessary conflicts between China and India in the Tibet border area, Premier Zhou visited India on April 19, 1960.
In fact, before this visit, Premier Zhou had already visited India three times.
Prior to Premier Zhou’s visit to India, India’s attitude was pretty good. Whether it was the welcome ceremony at the airport or the public welcome party, it gave China the respect it deserves.
However, during this visit in 1960, at a press conference, the Indian side launched a “bullet” offensive against China and Premier Zhou.
Before entering the lobby of this conference, Premier Zhou was stopped by a woman: Mr. Prime Minister, you will become their living target!
What is the problem between India and China’s Tibet? Why did this woman stop Premier Zhou from saying such a sentence?
1. A dirty and ridiculous “national boundary”
On April 19, 1960, Premier Zhou Enlai took the Minister of Foreign Affairs Chen Yi and others and landed at the New Delhi Airport in India.
However, the New Delhi Airport was deserted. Only Indian Prime Minister Nehru and his entourage greeted Prime Minister Zhou.
(Zhou Enlai and Nehru take a photo)
As for the subsequent welcoming ceremony to Premier Zhou, it was even more perfunctory. Nehru changed the habit of using English in the welcoming ceremony and used Hindi instead.
Before leaving, Zhou Enlai had expected that the Indian side would not be very enthusiastic about his visit.
But in fact, China and India have had a “honeymoon period”. In 1953, Premier Zhou Enlai put forward the “Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence” for the first time when he met with the Indian delegation.
Before long, China and India reached a partial agreement on the Tibet issue, and the relationship between the two countries entered a “honeymoon period.”
However, China and India did not spend long “honeymoon period”, and the dispute reappeared.
The dispute is mainly on the Tibet border issue.
(Zhou Enlai and India discussed the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence)
In fact, Premier Zhou Enlai visited India in 1956 on the issue of border negotiations between China and India. He expressed his willingness to negotiate border issues on the basis of “equal negotiations,” but India arbitrarily refused. Indian Prime Minister Nehru insisted that the Sino-Indian border has long been delimited by the “McMahon Line” and no further negotiation is required.
Speaking of this McMahon line, it has to start with the “Siram Conference” in 1914.
Briefly introduce the background of this Syram meeting. After the outbreak of the Xinhai Revolution in 1911, Britain wanted to separate Tibet from China and denied China’s territorial sovereignty over Tibet by recognizing China’s suzerainty over Tibet. So this Syram meeting was convened.
At the meeting, British representative McMahon, carrying representatives of the Chinese government, privately made dirty deals with local representatives attending the meeting in Tibet and drew the infamous “McMahon Line” in history.
This line pushed the original Sino-Indian border 150 kilometers from the Assam Plain to China’s Tibet. I want to divide the 90,000 square kilometers of China’s Tibetan territory into the British colony of India.
However, the Chinese government at the time was not aware of this matter, and the Tibetan representatives participating in the meeting were not authorized by the Dalai Lama of Tibet to divide the boundaries. Therefore, neither the Chinese government nor the Kasya regime recognizes this “McMahon Line”.
Since then, the successive Chinese governments have not recognized this indecent and illegal McMahon line. A treaty that China has not signed is obviously meaningless.
So, Nehru’s claim that the China-India border was delineated by the “McMahon Line” in 1956 is naturally extremely ridiculous.
(Prime Minister Zhou visited India)
As a result, the negotiations in 1956 broke up unhappy. Premier Zhou came to India again in 1960 with the attitude that China and India could negotiate peacefully.
As mentioned earlier, Nehru was very indifferent to Premier Zhou’s visit this time, and even impolite.
However, Premier Zhou was broad-minded and did not care too much about him. He still communicated with Nehru very actively.
However, India’s attitude is very unfriendly, and it has no intention of peacefully solving the problem with China.
In a blink of an eye, six days have passed since Premier Zhou arrived in India. In these six days, India’s attitude and sincerity have disappointed China.
Finally, in desperation, Premier Zhou Enlai decided to hold a press conference in the Cylindrical Hall of the Presidential Palace of India to show China’s sincerity to the world.
At this reception, Premier Zhou, on behalf of China, publicly expressed to the world: China’s determination to resolve the issue between China and India peacefully.
Of course, at this press conference, Premier Zhou also showed his wisdom and demeanor as the most outstanding diplomat in Chinese history.
(Prime Minister Zhou’s diplomatic style)
Before the press conference, after the reporters were allowed to enter the venue, the responsible personnel distributed the printed statements to the reporters.
In the statement, there is such content: The border between China and India has never been delimited, and any problems between the two countries should be resolved through friendly consultations. Before reaching any consensus, the two countries should maintain the current border status quo, and cannot unilaterally take any actions or change the status quo by force.
Immediately afterward, Premier Zhou Enlai, accompanied by Chen Yi and others, entered the Cylindrical Hall and met with the reporters waiting at the venue.
However, just before Premier Zhou entered the venue, a foreign woman rushed to stand in front of him. She looked at Premier Zhou with a worried look and said, “Mr. Prime Minister, you can’t go in!”
2. “Prime Minister, you will be their target”
This strange woman is Ms. Werna, a reporter from The Times.
She stopped the Prime Minister for nothing but wanted to tell him whether this reporter would be calm. I am afraid that many reporters will attack him and want to see his jokes.
Premier Zhou was very grateful after listening to Ms. Werna’s coming. He knew that this was Werna’s kind reminder to him.
However, as the prime minister of a country, he has been running on diplomatic occasions all year round. How could he be made difficult by a mere press conference? What’s more, this press conference was held by him!
Premier Zhou expressed his gratitude to Ms. Werna and then walked into the venue firmly and calmly.
Verna on the side thought that Premier Zhou did not understand what she meant, she once again caught up to remind the Prime Minister: Mr. Prime Minister, this may appear to be a press conference on the surface, but it is actually a dangerous “shooting range”. The words and questions asked by every reporter inside are like bullets. You will be their target, do you understand?
(Prime Minister Zhou’s diplomatic style)
Werna looked worried, but Premier Zhou was calm, he patted Ms. Werna on the shoulder and said: Don’t worry, the “bullet” from New Delhi will never hit me!
After entering the venue, Premier Zhou stood on the podium and started his speech calmly. In this forty-five-minute speech, Premier Zhou Enlai expressed China’s position and attitude to the world with loud words and a firm and bold tone.
In his speech, Premier Zhou said: China and India are two large civilized countries, both of which have five thousand years of an ancient civilization. For thousands of years, China and India have been living in peace and there has never been any war. I hope that our generation, no matter what happens, can sit down and calmly negotiate a settlement, adhering to the principle of “fairness, justice, and openness.”
These remarks have actually put China’s attitude on the table and put China’s sincerity in front of India and the world.
After the speech, Premier Zhou took a short break and then said: Before I entered the venue, a friend kindly reminded me that today I will become a “living target” for the “language bullet” of the people sitting there. But I think that as friends, we can directly say what opinions we have.
Not long after Premier Zhou’s words fell, an Indian journalist immediately stood up and made trouble.
(Zhou Enlai delivered a speech in India)
He asked: Mr. Prime Minister, as far as I know, the demarcation of the border between China and India has long been very clear. Why is it necessary to negotiate and re-divide?
There was a bit of ridicule in his question as if he was telling Premier Zhou that China was begging itself for boring this press conference!
However, the Prime Minister looked at him and answered calmly: If you have carefully read and studied the history of the border between China and India for hundreds of years if you have carefully understood how the so-called “borderline” in your mouth came from, I don’t think you Will ask this question!
As soon as the Prime Minister’s voice fell, James, a reporter from British Reuters, stood up and asked: Mr. Prime Minister, you said that China wants to negotiate with India through peaceful means to resolve the Sino-Indian border issue. Then I want to ask, something that originally belongs to other countries, you Do you think that China is qualified to discuss the ownership of this thing?
This question made Premier Zhou, who had always been gentle on his face, instantly serious. Premier Zhou Enlai looked at James very seriously and said: I think your statement is very inappropriate in the territorial dispute between the two countries. I want to ask you if a robber takes someone else’s property, what is it that the original owner of the item takes back from the robber what belongs to him?
(China-India border map)
Premier Zhou’s hard-line attitude and serious tone made the atmosphere tense. Obviously, James thought that his problems would put Premier Zhou in a dilemma, but he did not expect that he was choked back by the Premier.
The original intention of James’ question was to provoke a conflict between China and India, but he did not expect to be slapped in the face by Premier Zhou’s answer in one second! I had to look ugly, and sit down in jealousy. After all, his words are nothing but nothing, and Premier Zhou Enlai’s words are not out of nothing.
(Chinese border monument)
After James sat down, another reporter stood up and asked: Mr. Prime Minister, is Tibet a Chinese territory since ancient times?
Regarding this question, Premier Zhou replied with confidence: Not to mention the ages too long, at least since the Yuan Dynasty, Tibet has been Chinese territory.
Who knows that the reporter retorted: The Yuan Dynasty is too short of today.
Premier Zhou Enlai said with a smile: “China’s Yuan Dynasty is more than 700 years old. If more than 700 years are considered to be a short time, then the United States has only a history of more than 100 years since its founding. Become a country? This is obviously absurd.”
Not only was Premier Zhou able to answer every question he asked, but he also answered his questions so that the reporter couldn’t say a word.
(Topographic Map of China and India)
After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, Premier Zhou appeared on diplomatic occasions large and small, and he had never experienced ups and downs. It is not a matter of being embarrassed by reporters with various problems once or twice, but he has never been embarrassed.
Premier Zhou’s answer has already made many people present to see the power of this China’s best diplomat!
(Old photos of Zhou Enlai’s visit to India)
Premier Zhou was arguing with the reporters at the meeting. Chen Yi, who was half his life in the army, could no longer stand the rude and ridiculous behavior of this group of people. He stood up and said unceremoniously: We Chairman Mao once said, “People don’t offend me, I don’t offend others. ; If anyone offends me, I will offend others!”
Chen Yi’s words surprised Tomla, including the other reporters present, and the venue fell into silence.
(Soldier guarding the border)
Finally, Premier Zhou Enlai ended the press conference with a paragraph:
We will never invade an inch of land in any country, and of course, we will not tolerate others invading us. There is no conflict of fundamental interests between the people of China and India. The temporary dark cloud will be eliminated, and the border dispute between the two countries can be resolved.
(Children on the Sino-Indian border)
In fact, Premier Zhou’s visit to India this time did not change Nehru’s thoughts, but the press conference not only expressed China’s sincerity to India but also to the world. This is one of the many efforts China has made on the Sino-Indian border issue.
After appreciating the demeanor of the Prime Minister last week at this press conference, let’s answer another question raised above, namely: Why does India point fingers at China’s Tibet?
three. The territory is sacred and inviolable!
I mentioned the McMahon boundary line above, which is only an incentive for the Sino-Indian boundary issue.
India is actually the neighboring country with the largest territorial dispute with China. Since August 14, 1947, after India got rid of British colonial rule and Nehru came to power, it wanted to take over the legacy of the British colonial power, which included the British colonial policy and expansion policy.
(China-India conflict, bayonet confrontation)
Afterward, Nehru introduced a “forward policy” on the border issue between China and India between 1960 and 1962 and regarded China’s policy of friendly consultation with India as China’s weakness and good bullying.
India continues to create conflicts on the southwest border of China, trying to cannibalize China’s territory, and it has supported and accommodated some Tibetan independence insurgents. This led to the outbreak of a full-scale armed conflict between the two countries in 1962, and the relationship between the two countries has been in an abnormal state for a long time.
China and India have been confronted many times over the border issue and even had armed conflicts. The Indian side used various illegal and malicious means to voluntarily cross the Sino-Indian border or provoke disputes.
The most recent one was the border conflict in 2020 (the Indian side maliciously obstructed China’s construction within the Chinese border, and deliberately provoked it across the border, causing intense physical clashes between the two sides).
Prior to this, the 1987 Sino-Indian border “standoff incident”, the 2013 “tent standoff” incident, the 2017 “Donglang standoff” incident, etc…
As of April 29, 2021, the spokesperson of the Chinese Ministry of National Defense Wu Qian said in a regular press conference of the Ministry of National Defense, “With the joint efforts of China and India, the border defense forces of the two sides have achieved disengagement in the Kalwan River Valley and the Bangong Lake area. , The overall situation in the border areas has eased.”
We do not know whether China and India will have disputes over the border Tibet issue in the future. China hopes that India can abide by the border treaty.
(Border soldiers on the Sino-Indian border)
As Premier Zhou said at the press conference, “China is very willing to resolve disputes with India in a peaceful way”, but also as Chairman Mao said, “If people do not offend me, I will not offend others; if a person is a prisoner, I must be a prisoner. !”
If India initiates a dispute again and continuously crosses China’s borders and territories, China will have only one sentence to send India “China’s territorial sovereignty is sacred and inviolable!” The consequences are at your own risk!
Finally, speaking of Premier Zhou, if anyone has carefully understood the diplomatic story of Premier Zhou Enlai, he will find that Premier Zhou is a very careful and responsive person.
He is good at digging hostile questions raised by the opponent into a trap for the opponent to jump into. Every question he answered, every sentence he said was well-founded, citing classics, and not leaking! Even if the opponent is rude, Premier Zhou still speaks with facts; even if the opponent engages in a siege, he always resolves the crisis neither humble nor arrogant.
(The People’s Army Guards the Border)
In the diplomatic field of China, Premier Zhou Enlai is a landmark figure. He used IQ and EQ to represent China on the stage of world diplomacy and showed the world China’s great power and wisdom.
After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the foreign minister has served eleven terms, from the first Premier Zhou Enlai to today’s Minister Wang Yi.
But no matter who it is, they will always stand in front of the world on behalf of China and pass on Chinese ideas, Chinese beliefs, and China.