Torn apart, India’s inevitable fate?

Translated from the Headlines (Toutiao 头条新闻)

Author: The Fall of the Allure(倾城之殇)

In recent years, India has become more and more economically optimistic about the international media. In particular, Western countries have clamored that the future of East Asia depends on the competition between China and India, which is called the battle between the dragon and the elephant. But anyone who really understands the national conditions of India understands one truth: India’s strength is just a mere mere mere appearance, and fragmentation is the true background of India.

So what is the reason for India’s fragmentation? Will the disintegration of the country become its inevitable destiny?

India was never truly unified

Neither modern India nor ancient India was a truly unified country. Civilizations on the South Asian subcontinent were always in a state of combining and dividing, and this historical and cultural gene was also used by modern India. Successfully inherited.

The difference between the history of India and China is that most of the history of China was under the rule of a unified dynasty. Although there were constant dynasty changes, these dynasties were all based on national and cultural identity.

What India’s thousands of years of civilization have shown to the world is the historical process of the civilization of the South Asian subcontinent being continuously invaded and subverted by foreign civilizations.

The native civilization of the South Asian subcontinent is called the Haraba civilization. It was created by the Dravidians in the Indus Valley around 2500 BC. This is the earliest human civilization in ancient India.

Around 2000 BC, Aryans from Central Asia broke into ancient India from the Khyber Pass of the Hindu Kush Mountains in the northwest of the South Asian subcontinent. These nomadic people who lived on the grasslands quickly conquered the local Daro. The Vida and Aryans became the first foreign people to invade ancient India.

In order to better manage and control the Dravidians, the Aryans specially created the caste system that has been passed down in India to this day, and the Dravidians are the lowest caste system in the caste system.

In the 6th century BC, the rising Persian army under the leadership of King Darius I invaded the ancient Indus Valley through the Khyber Pass, conquered the flat plains, and ruled there for more than 200 years.

The Persian Empire was followed by a famous military strategist in world history, King Alexander the Great of Macedonia, who successively conquered Egypt and annihilated the Persian Empire, and finally expanded its territory to the Indus Valley through the same route, establishing a huge empire spanning Asia, Europe, and Africa. Bring the splendid ancient Greek civilization to ancient India.

However, in 323 BC, the great emperor died prematurely due to illness, causing the empire he established to quickly collapse. At this time, the local dynasties of the ancient Indus Valley rose up, especially the Maurya Dynasty that controlled the northern part of ancient India. Most areas.

In the 8th century AD, the Arabs in West Asia once again followed the footprints of Alexander the Great to enter this ancient land and brought Islam into ancient India. Islam and the local Hindu forces also started a long struggle.

In 1562 AD, the descendants of the Mongols invaded ancient India from the Khyber Pass, where they established a powerful Mughal dynasty, the most powerful and powerful dynasty in Indian history, and the last feudal dynasty.

Under the leadership of its third-generation emperor Akbar, the Mogul Empire carried out arduous and diligent governance. With the help of capable officers and generals, Akbar formulated a plan to unify the Indian continent.

After 15 years of uninterrupted conquests, Akbar unified most of the Indian territory except southern India in 1569. The huge imperial territory made the Mughal Empire the world’s three largest empires alongside the Ming Dynasty and the Ottoman Turk Empire. .

Since the 17th century, the Mogul Empire began to weaken. Due to successive wars, farmers’ burdens became heavier and peasant uprisings were surging in various regions. Various regions began to seek to break away from the rule of the central dynasty and form a high degree of autonomy.

In the middle of the 17th century, anti-feudal struggles in various parts of the empire became more intense. At that time, the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb carried out brutal suppression, but it was still difficult to stop the decline of the empire. By the time of Aurangzeb’s death, some feudal lords had left the imperial rule and established an independent kingdom.

At this time, the surrounding ethnic groups also took advantage of the fire and looted and slaughtered the provinces of the Mogul Empire. Especially in 1739, the invasion of the Iranian General Nadirsha also forced the Mogul Emperor to cede land and pay compensation.

However, the European colonists are the ultimate winners of this subcontinent. In the mid-18th century, European powers Portugal, Holland, France, and Britain successively invaded India. Britain finally won the struggle and became the new master of this land. The Mughal Empire died in 1857. After the dynasty fell, it stayed here. The territories are the big and small kingdoms ruled by separatism.

The British colonial authorities also wanted to forcibly include the land in the hands of the Tubang under their own name, but this seriously violated the interests of the Tubang, which triggered the Indian National Uprising in 1857. Although this uprising failed, But it dealt a heavy blow to British rule in India.

After the British learned their skills, they began to consider cooperating with the Indian states.

The British took advantage of the contradictions between the territories to divide and rule, and reached an agreement with the princes of each state through both soft and hard. They transferred a portion of the income to these princes every year to ensure their privileges in their respective states, and the princes of the states were responsible for the daily affairs of the United Kingdom. Carry out management and safeguard the interests of the United Kingdom. By this means, Britain completed the reunification for the first time in Indian history.

During the British rule of India, the European political and economic systems and cultural habits were embedded in the local social ecology. That is to say, the British created a framework for India to manage the country. What happened after that was also surprising. After sending away the British, the Indians honestly accepted this social management system.

After the Second World War, Britain was badly injured and had to give up its rule on the British Indian continent. However, before leaving, the British formulated the Mountbatten Plan in accordance with their religious beliefs in 1947 and implemented it in this area. “India-Pakistan partition” gave birth to two independent countries, India and Pakistan, thus forming the political pattern of South Asia today.

Throughout the history of the development of the South Asian subcontinent, the people of the land where India is located have experienced many alien invasions, but the indigenous peoples of India have always been unable to assimilate the newcomers, which has made the ethnic composition of India more and more complicated.

According to Indian official statistics in 1956, the country has more than 200 ethnic groups and as many as 1,652 languages.

Faced with so many ethnic groups and more than 500 territories, the founding prime minister of India, Nehru, did not have the courage to carry out a bottom-up violent revolution after independence and knocked out the princely separatist forces. Instead, he chose to compromise with the states. In particular, the recognition of Indian states’ ownership of land within their own states has greatly reduced the cohesion of Indian centralization and weakened the authority and efficiency of the central government.

The Indian tribes have considerable influence in the localities. These historically formed local state forces are a huge obstacle to India’s in-depth reforms. Therefore, since independence, India has been in a shallow state of unity. Once the country has a crisis, Local states will show a move away from the control of the central government.

Religious contradictions, caste culture, and foreign policy

In addition to the excessive autonomy of the Turks, the other splitting factor in India’s national conditions is religious contradictions.

The reason why the British carried out the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947 was also due to the contradiction between the Hindu and Muslims of the two major sects of India, but the independence of India and Pakistan did not mean that there would be no believers of the other in the two countries.

After the partition of India and Pakistan, in terms of religious beliefs in India, Hindus accounted for 80% of the total population, with a number of about 1 billion, and Muslims accounted for 11%, with a number of about 160 million. Other sects include Buddhism and Sikhism. Wait. From this, it appears that the British division was obviously suspected of instigating the contradictions between India and Pakistan.

The contradiction between Hinduism and Muslims has a history of more than a thousand years, but neither the British colonizers nor the Indian government that took over the British mantle has been able to effectively resolve the contradictions between the two sides. As a result, India continues to suffer from both sides in the process of economic development. Troubled by sect conflicts.

When the Islamic Arabs invaded India, Islam was brought into the region. In order to reflect the superiority of Islam, the Arab rulers asked a large number of Hindus to convert to Islam, which triggered the killing of sects on both sides. Since then, religious contradictions have long existed in Indian civilization.

After India’s independence, the Indian National Congress government put forward the political slogan of pluralistic constitutionalism in order to resolve the contradictions between the two parties. It declared that it would not discuss political issues based on religious and ethnic characteristics, which to some extent eased the conflict between the two factions.

However, as the Bharatiya Janata Party came to power, the Indian government began to improve the status of Hindus in its religious policies, because there was a right-wing ultra-nationalist organization behind Modi’s Bharatiya Janata Party, which was the “National Volunteer Service Corps” established in 1925. He even admires Hinduism and degrades Muslims.

Modi’s ability to come to power depends on the support of the vast majority of Hindus in the country, and his religious policy naturally leans towards Hinduism.

However, Modi’s xenophobic religious policy has led to riots in Indian society and seriously affected social stability.

On December 11, 2019, the upper house of the Indian parliament passed a bill called the “Citizenship Amendment Act”. According to the provisions of the amendment, the Indian government will provide the members of the religious persecution of its three neighboring countries to become Opportunities for Indian citizens, except for Muslims.

The bill came into effect the next day under the signature of President Kowan, and the speed of its entry into force is not unpleasant.

The amendment was considered by Muslims to openly discriminate against the legal status of Muslims in the country. After the news was released, it was strongly criticized at home and abroad, especially in neighboring Pakistan, and caused large-scale turmoil in the northeastern state of Assam. As a result, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, who had originally visited India, postponed the visit plan.

Criticisms and doubts about the amendment from the outside world mainly come from three aspects.

First of all, with the continuous development of modern society and economy, religion has become more and more secular in the economic development of various countries. All countries have adopted the policy of free religious belief and equal status of believers. This trip of the Bharatiya Janata Party violates the Indian Constitution and practices religion. The basic spirit of the principle of equality.

Second, the Indian state of Assam has been plagued by illegal immigration for a long time. If illegal immigrants rely on this amendment to obtain Indian citizenship, it will erode the language and ethnic culture of the region and may change the population ratio of the region in the long run. Affect social order.

Moreover, some family members of illegal immigrants must be composed of members of multiple religions, and the new amendment will create unnecessary divisions for these immigrant families.

Third, Western countries headed by the United States have long focused on India on the grounds of religious persecution. India’s move has caused dissatisfaction with the International Committee on Religious Freedom of the United States, which has asked the US government to impose relevant sanctions on the Indian government. Destroy the ever-strengthening U.S.-India relations.

Neighboring countries represented by Pakistan and Bangladesh have issued warnings to India, demanding that India respect international practices and change its wrong practices.

Especially for Pakistan, the two sides have used shelling to greet each other on the Kashmir issue all year round. This time Modi’s religious extremist policy that discriminates against Muslims will inevitably add fuel to the originally poor relationship between the two countries and the armed forces.

Although the Modi government’s irrational behavior in religious policy has won the support of Hindus, it also devalued the status of other believers. This will aggravate the distrust of the central government by a minority of believers represented by Muslims, thereby increasing the distrust of the central government. The separation impulse of some Indian states.

In addition to religious conflicts that may lead to the division of India, India’s caste culture that has stretched for thousands of years has also brought considerable trouble to India.

The caste system is a strict feudal hierarchy created by the invading Aryans to control the local Dravidians. Although India abolished the caste system at the legal level as early as 1947, it still exists in large numbers in real society.

The system divides people into three, six, or nine classes, and people of different castes are strictly distinguished in all aspects of social activities such as life, study, marriage, and work. Especially in rural areas of India, the caste system determines a person’s fate from birth.

Take marriage as an example. The marriage of men and women of different castes is very dangerous in India. The bride and groom are likely to be brutally beaten or even killed by relatives and friends.

On January 2, 2019, according to local media reports in India, a 22-year-old woman from a high caste married a low-caste man privately. The girl’s parents regarded her as an insult to the dignity of her high caste. Therefore, her parents not only treated her Killed cruelly, burned the body to ashes, and threw it into a nearby river.

The above cases are only the serious harm of the caste system to the rural people in India in terms of marriage, and the ignorant feudal abuse of the Indian caste system to the extreme suppression of the Indian society makes it impossible to achieve the class transition, undermines the unity of the people of all classes, and strangles them. India’s national innovation and progress are the root cause of the abhorrence of the caste system.

The caste system that makes the country hopeless is the most terrible thing, and the people have not seen the hope of standing out for a long time and cannot enjoy the dividends brought by the development of the country. Naturally, they will not support the rule of the ruling party but have difficulties in the country. It’s not surprising that you choose to leave.

The tendency of Indian society to split is also related to its foreign policy.

Although India has achieved impressive economic development in recent years, it has left behind the European powers such as Britain and France in terms of GDP. However, due to its poor national governance capabilities, it always has a sense of self-confidence in developing foreign relations. Keep the surrounding countries in mind.

Because of its good economic development, it has repeatedly been favored by Western countries, especially in the current environment where the United States is desperately besieging China. India is confused by Biden’s sweet words. Provocative policy.

India not only has a bad relationship with China and Pakistan but also has a bad relationship with Nepal, Bangladesh, and even Sri Lanka. This is mainly due to the fact that during the new crown pandemic, India cannot effectively control the epidemic internally, but is encouraged by the United States externally. As a result, he chose to take the sword and slant forward, shifting the domestic focus to foreign relations.

By maintaining a strong attitude towards China, we will gather national cohesion to demonstrate its “strong leadership” to the country.

Modi is obviously self-defeating. China’s economic, technological, military, and diplomatic strengths are far from what India can compare. Modi believes that China will respond to the US provocations on the Taiwan Strait issue in the southeast. Modi was too naive to make concessions on the Sino-Indian border issue.

India is currently facing pressure from many parties on the border issue, so the Chinese people call India’s current dilemma multi-site printing, or “three-dimensional printing.” In addition, our army recently issued a warning to “don’t misjudge the situation.” If India stepped on our army’s red line anyway, it would face a fierce counterattack.

And this counterattack by our army will surely reproduce the scene in 1962. For India, the disastrous defeat on the border issue will inevitably greatly affect Modi’s domestic governance foundation and will allow various separatist forces that originally existed in the country to find an opportunity for independence. This is great for India’s national security. Unlucky.

Especially the separatist forces represented by the six states in northeastern India. These six states not only have a narrow Siliguri corridor with India geographically, but also differ greatly from Hinduism in terms of ethnicity, religion, and culture.

In the current delicate environment, India should still humbly listen to the admonitions of our military, otherwise, India can only take care of it when something happens.

Concluding remarks

The history of India’s thousands of years of continuous invasion by foreigners has allowed the world to see the biggest feature of today’s Indian national conditions: India is not a truly unified country, but more like a geographical concept, which has been able to maintain the integrity of the country’s sovereignty today.

However, India’s current domestic and foreign policies are very detrimental to India’s safeguarding of national sovereignty. If India really takes a wrong step, then India is likely to return to the “Warring States Period” in history, and most people will think that this is the normal state of India.