In 1793, the first lady of France was sent to the execution ground. People: Get on the guillotine, Madam: I’ll be there soon

Translated from the Headlines (Toutiao 头条新闻)

Author: Ye Zisi(叶子思)

On November 8, 1793, on the Revolution Square in Paris, a group of people were craning their necks and stared at the towering guillotine in the center of the square. People’s eyes were empty, and only when they saw the heads fall to the ground, the crowd would cheer and cheer.

On this day, another group of executed prisoners was escorted here. When the prisoners filed out of the prison cart, people’s eyes were all attracted by the last woman who came out. This woman was wearing a white long dress and a jet-black dress. With her long hair hanging down her waist like a waterfall, with a charming smile on her face, she looked so graceful and calm, as if she was not going to die, but going on a long-cherished date.

Seeing this “Keren” walking down, some excited people couldn’t help shouting: “Go to the guillotine! Go to the guillotine!” The woman looked at the grumpy crowd and replied with a smile: “My friends, I’m going, and I’ll be there in a while.”

The French “Revolution Square” during the Revolution, now called the Place de la Concorde in Paris

This sentence was like thunder thrown in the crowd, which caused a commotion in the audience. Some curious people asked about the woman’s name. Soon people learned that the woman’s name was Yana Manon. Of course, besides this name, she also There is a name that can be recorded in French history: Madame Roland.

So, why Mrs. Roland was sent to the guillotine? All of this must start from her life.

On March 17, 1754, Yana Manon was born in a middle-class family in Paris. Her parents gave birth to eight children, but only one of them survived.

Yana Manon showed extraordinary talent at a very young age. She was able to read books at the age of 4. When other children were playing around the world, she would rather stay at home and read books. She especially liked reading “Greek and Roman Celebrities”. “Biography”, admires Plutarch very much.

When she was 11 years old, Yana was sent by her parents to the convent of the Women’s Group of the Catholic Church in Paris. There, she met many aristocrats who were painted and powdered and sitting in gilded carriages. Na was disgusted.

Madame Roland

It was these experiences that made her crazy about Rousseau’s works. She began to believe in “innate human rights.” She deeply realized that the country in which she lives is becoming more and more ridiculous. This kind of unfair society must get Change.

At this time Yana formed her own political ideals, and she also became a rare independent and knowledgeable “new woman” of that era.

But soon, Yana found that she didn’t have the energy to worry about national affairs at all, because her little family was nothing but a thing: after her mother died of illness, the originally warm family was shattered, and her father started a debauchery life and even brought her together. Go to the house and fight together.

Yana had to start thinking about finding a small family of her own. At this time, she had already come out so slim and graceful, so naturally, there was no shortage of suitors around her, but what he valued was the talent and soul of the other party, those wealthy businessmen and wealthy businessmen. The noble children couldn’t move her at all.

In the end, Mr. Roland from Amiens succeeded in capturing her heart. Mr. Roland was the inspector of Amiens’ manufacturing industry. He had traveled to many countries, read many books, and had extraordinary insights, especially with his own unique views on politics. Roland is 20 years older than Yana, but Yana feels that he is her “soul mate”.

In the winter of 1780, 26-year-old Yana wore a white wedding dress and walked into the wedding hall. After getting married, according to the custom of the time, Yana’s title should be changed. Everyone began to call her “Mrs. Roland.”

After marriage, Mrs. Roland is happy. She and Mr. Roland also have the crystallization of love. If there is no revolution, their family should be able to be happy arbitrarily…

But her extraordinary insights were also destined for her to remain unfamiliar. The sparks of her thoughts collided at the same time, and the smoke-filled her, which not only made her but also ruined her.

On July 13, 1789, the Bastille of Paris, a symbol of royal power, was captured, the French Revolution began, and a storm kicked off…

During this period, Madame Roland’s husband entered the National Assembly, and their family returned to Paris from the countryside. Madame Roland, who originally had her own unique views on politics, was naturally unwilling to be lonely. As her husband’s “shadow secretary”, she began to formally enter the political arena.

In those days, she often went to the National Assembly meetings and listened to the debates of various viewpoints. In the evening, she held a private salon as a hostess at home. At first, she attended the salons by French business people who believed in liberalism. , They have a common title “Girondists”.

Conquer the Bastille

Mrs. Roland is not only beautiful and elegant but also has an extraordinary literary talent and a keen political mind. Every time she holds a salon, she is a veritable soul figure, and many people are proud to be able to participate in her salon. For a time, people of insight from all walks of life came one after another.

Among those people, Mrs. Roland paid special attention to a lawyer from the country. This lawyer was the famous Maximilian Robespierre in the future. The Robespierre of that meeting had a dull expression and a long-winded speech. , Sometimes the words are almost rude, many times, he prefers to sit in the corner and listen to the eloquence of others.

Mrs. Roland admired Robespierre very much. When someone tried to send Robespierre to the guillotine, Mrs. Roland helped him in time to avoid a fatal disaster. No one knew that when Mrs. Roland changed Robespierre’s destiny, he would also change her destiny in the near future, but the result was the opposite.

Robespierre

In 1792, the Girondists gradually came to power. In March of the same year, Mr. Roland was appointed as the Minister of the Interior of France. When the royal power had been swept to the corner of the stage, the Minister of Interior was already equivalent to the French leader to some extent.

At that time, many people knew that Mr. Roland was just the minister standing in front of the stage, and the real influence on him was the wife behind him. Mrs. Roland drafted various documents for her husband. She spread her thoughts in the salon and used her charm and talent to gather all like-minded people.

While holding power, Madame Roland found herself caught in another whirlpool: She fell in love with Bozzo, a Girondist politician who often came to the Salon. Bozzo expressed her love for Madame Roland unreservedly. This was unexpected. Her love made her miserable, and she chose to confess to her husband, in exchange for the expected anger.

Reason makes it impossible for Mrs. Roland to give up her pursuit of a perfect personality. She firmly believes that all physical pleasures except marriage are sins, so she falls into a platonic love. And the political storm that followed made her have no time to take care of her confusion in the emotional world.

In addition to the Girondists, the crazy and ruthless Jacobin faction rose rapidly. The Jacobin faction was very radical. They advocated that all laws must be approved by the people, but at the same time, they firmly believed that only a dictatorship and even a dictatorship above the people could be established. The government can preserve the victory of the revolution. For this reason, all violence is reasonable. Their first torture is beheading.

After Jacobin took power, Paris was plunged into unprecedented blood and madness. As long as he was considered a royalist or a constitutional monarch, he could be executed directly on the road, in an apartment, in a prison, or even anywhere without trial.

guillotine

In front of the Jacobin faction that swept everything, the Girondist faction was like a group of lambs waiting to be slaughtered. Mrs. Roland tried to communicate with the leaders of the Jacobin faction Dandong and Robespierre, but the two had long since broken off. Her link. At this time, Mrs. Roland was no longer able to control the situation, and Mr. Roland was also forced to resign from the post of Minister of the Interior that was only in name.

On May 31, 1793, an unexpected riot broke out. The Jacobins carried a raging public opinion and searched for members of the Girondists throughout Paris. The 22 most important figures of the Girondists were all killed Arrest, at a critical moment, Mrs. Roland arranged for her husband to escape, but she stayed at home and waited to be arrested.

At dawn, a group of armed men pushed open the door of Mrs. Roland’s room and showed her a warrant for her arrest. Mrs. Roland was calm, she kissed her sleeping daughter on the cheek and hurried away.

Mrs. Roland was thrown into a single cell in Abeyi Prison. Just four months after being arrested, the authorities suddenly told her that she had been acquitted. Mrs. Roland could not believe her ears for a while, but she was When she went home to open the door, she was arrested again.

It turned out that the authorities just thought that the last arrest did not comply with the legal process and let her go home, just to make the arrest more justifiable.

This time she was arrested and she was put in prison with worse conditions. After several times, the last prison was kept cold and wet, with no windows or even a bed. The kind inmates stuffed a mattress from the gap in the door of the prison. She, without a quilt, spent night after night shivering on the mattress.

In court, she refused to defend herself. Although Mrs. Roland had been interrogated several times, her attitude was always firm. She hoped that she would become the last sacrificer of the party’s frenzy. She knew clearly that there was no point in defending herself, and it was impossible for the Jacobins to let her go.

Execution of King Louis XVI

On November 8, 1793, Mrs. Roland’s last moment came, and before she walked out of the cell door, she was carefully dressed and dressed. The guillotine in Revolution Square once again sounded bloody guillotine ups and downs, and the prisoners were pulled down from the carriage one by one and sent to the high platform.

For some people, the process of waiting for death is actually more uncomfortable than death. In the team that was sent to the guillotine, Mrs. Roland found that an old man behind her was already scared, so she made a request to the escorting officer: let me The old man behind him will go to the guillotine first.

The request was initially rejected by the officer, but in the end, the officer agreed to the request. The guillotine fell and his head fell on the ground. The old man’s body was thrown aside like a log. Mrs. Roland knew: It was her turn.

She lifted her skirt, walked briskly onto the guillotine, and standing on the high guillotine, she meaningfully scanned the people of Paris who were looking forward to it, and then made a deep bow to the statue of liberty not far away. With a bow, he said the words that have been passed down to this day:

Free! How many sins are done in your name!

After she finished speaking, she put her head on the guillotine, the cold light flashed, her beautiful head fell to the ground, and her life was fixed at 39 forever.

Although Mrs. Roland is dead, the story is not over yet. One of her maids found the Revolutionary Court and requested to be sent to the guillotine for the execution of the mistress. The Revolutionary Court was shocked by such a request and felt unbelievable. She directly declared that the maid was crazy and expelled her.

Mr. Roland, who was on the run, cried bitterly when he learned of his wife’s death. He drew out the rapier from his cane and inserted it into his chest. A group of farmers found him under a tree in the wilderness.

Half a year later, Bozo’s body was found in the Bordeaux area. It was also a suicide. When people accidentally found the body, the body had been torn apart by wild dogs and it was almost invisible in human form.

“Freedom! How many crimes are done in your name!”

Less than half a year after Mrs. Roland yelled this sentence, the head of Jacobin Dandong also fell under the guillotine. Only three months later, Robespierre was beaten by the National Convention that he once called to drink. Abandoned and fled hurriedly, he was shot to smash his jaw by a guarded boy and lost the ability to defend. The next day he was covered in blood and went to the guillotine on the ground.

When Robespierre’s head fell, the crowd onlookers still cheered and cheered. Many of them applauded the execution of Louis XVI, the execution of Madame Roland, and the execution of Dandong. Now also applaud for the execution of Robespierre.

Revolution Square

For Mrs. Roland, for Robespierre, and even the French Revolution, there have been various opinions and opinions for a long time. If they can learn it, mankind should always learn from these historical lessons.

But mankind always seems to confirm that sentence: The lesson that mankind has learned from history is that mankind will never learn from history.