Reasons for the outbreak of the two world wars

Translated from the Headlines (Toutiao 头条新闻)

Author: Lukewen Studio (卢克文工作室)

Because European history is too fragmented and messy, this article does not adopt the mode of slowly telling the story. I will try to explain it clearly and briefly.

The main root causes of the First World War and the Second World War all started in Germany.

The Second World War is actually a continuation of the First World War. It was the outbreak of World War II that caused many problems in World War I to be unresolved. They are a whole. Do not look at World War I and World War II separately.

As long as the whole thing is analyzed from Germany, the context will be very clear.

In the early years, this land of Germany belonged to the Holy Roman Empire, which was “neither sacred nor an empire.” During the Thirty Years’ War, countries that supported Protestantism and countries that supported Catholicism violently tore in the German region, smashing the whole of Germany. The process was so bloody that 40% of the population died in the entire region, and even 75% of the population in Wittenberg died, almost dead.

The Holy Roman Empire in 1789, the blue is Prussia, the source is Baidu Encyclopedia

China is a secularized country. We rarely see this kind of thing. We don’t understand the cruelty of the Pope’s struggle. So every time we see them fighting for the Pope like a lunatic, the Chinese always see it on the sidelines. Face dumbfounded.

When you watch ancient movies, people from other countries raised their swords and shouted “For God”, “For Allah”, “For the Pope”, “For the Holy Light”… they rushed in blood. These are all on-the-spot performances with the addition of religious buffs. Chinese people generally do not shout these in wars. At most, they say “Brothers rush.” ​​The slogans are very secular, and religious fanaticism seems to us to be similar to crazy.

Because of the terrible death, the small German countries were marginalized. Among them, only Prussia was still alive, but Prussia could not make it to the stage of Europe at this time. Just like the Chinese talked about Thailand, it only felt that humans and animals were harmless. At that time there is no sense of existence at all.

However, men fell from the sky behind Prussia, laying the road to a strong country in Prussia.

The first strong man was called Frederick II. He got up at 4 o’clock every day and worked until late at night. Every day 007, he first trained a powerful army. In 1740, he took advantage of the Austrian civil strife and defeated Austrian Russia. The Three Kingdoms of France seized Silesia (mainly in Poland today), which is rich in natural resources, which is equivalent to opening a new mine, which can continue to explode and recuperate for ten years. In 1756, it happened to catch the Seven Years’ War.

In the Seven Years’ War, Prussia and Britain fought the three countries of France, Austria, and Russia. Prussia was 200,000 vs. France, Austria, and Russia 600,000. The fight almost collapsed. Frederick II began to doubt his life, and Russia suddenly changed the subject. , Announcing that it would not fight, Prussia recovered its life, saved the important mine Silesia, and also saved the opportunity for continued development.

The biggest beneficiary of the Seven Years’ War was Britain. At that time, the two major powers in the world were fighting for hegemony between Britain and France. France gave up India, Canada, and the east of the Mississippi.

After this battle, Prussia also officially became the top five in Europe, chatting and laughing with Britain, France, Russia, and Austria.

The second macho was the iron-blooded prime minister Bismarck 120 years later. In 1861, William I became King of Prussia and expanded his army to more than 600,000. In the following year, he appointed Bismarck as prime minister and minister of foreign affairs. Bismarck was born into a noble family of Darjunker. He is bold and unrestrained. He has dueled with people 25 times when he is studying, advocating to talk less nonsense and to use force to solve the problem directly.

After becoming prime minister, he advanced to attack Denmark, seized two principalities from Denmark, and beat Austria to withdraw from the federation. Finally, in 1870, he deliberately angered France and challenged France. France was still proud and complacent at that time and did not put Prussia in In his eyes, he was desperate and said that he “declared war with a relaxed and happy mood.” The actual organization and mobilization ability and military hardware lag behind the rapidly developing Germany. As a result, Bismarck was rubbed on the ground, and the French king was captured and ceded to Al. In most areas of Saskatchewan-Lorraine, Germany will also be compensated 5 billion francs.

Napoleon III, captured in the Franco-Prussian War, talking with Bismarck

From Napoleon to the present, France’s performance on the battlefield has been unbearable.

The 5 billion francs rank fourth in human war indemnities, which is more than the Boxer indemnity in the Qing Dynasty (but not as much as the sum of the principal and interest of the Boxer indemnity). Before the French paid the indemnity, the German army had been stationed in France and the military expenditure was also It has to be borne by France. France can be said to have lost its power and insulted the country. There is a deep hatred between France and Germany.

With this great victory, Prussia formally unified the states, and everyone expressed their conviction. In January 1871, it was unified politically and administratively into a single country, and since then there was Germany.

At this time, it was only more than 40 years since the First World War occurred.

Frederick II stabilized Prussia in the top five in Europe, while Bismarck let Germany defeat France and become the second strongest country in Europe. At this time, it has threatened the top spot of the British Empire.

Of course, the No. 1 dung stick in Tianzi cannot tolerate other people’s wildness in front of itself. France has added new enemies, and Germany will face the coercion of two old powers.

Of course, whether you are an individual or a country, you will definitely offend people in the process of development. You can’t stop developing because you don’t dare to offend people. Anyway, the person who scolds you will feel boring if you scold him. In the end, you have to get used to yourself. Is powerful.

At that time, the United Kingdom and Germany were two heroes side by side. They were in the first gear, while France, Russia, and the United States were slightly weaker in the second gear. However, Germany encountered a serious problem during its development.

Before introducing the problems of Germany, I would like to briefly introduce the four necessary conditions for the development of industrial power.

The four major conditions are land, workers, minerals, and the market.

The land is used to build factories and infrastructure, and farmland needs to be converted. Serious social tears will occur in the process. India’s current development is stuck here. As long as a large number of workers with basic education are willing to enter the factory, like British sheep The cannibalism movement is to force some farmers to become workers. Before the reform and opening up, China promoted knowledge and eradicated illiteracy among young people. Once the door was opened, a large number of high-quality workers were guaranteed to enter the factory; minerals refer to coal, iron, oil, etc. During the early industrial revolution, coal and iron were more important. Germany happened to have these in its own land, and industry could develop. However, as the stalls later became bigger and more mines were needed, it needed to expand the colony to the colony. Go mining; in the end, the factory is built and something is produced. Someone has to buy it. If no one buys the factory, the factory will close down, and the workers will lose their jobs. What kind of industrial upgrading is there to talk about? Generally, powerful countries dump directly into the colonies, so that the people of the colonies form an internal cycle with their factories.

Almost all of the above four elements are related to colonies, but Germany is a late-comer country, and when he develops, he finds that the colonies in this world are not enough.

No way, the world is divided up mainly by the old powers of Britain, France, Spain, and Portugal. You came to Germany too late to squeeze in.

How about you come early next time? Anyway, it’s impossible to give you territory now.

In the 1880s, the relationship between Britain and Germany was pretty good, because both sides needed to suppress France. By the 1890s, Bismarck was gone, and William II came to power and decided to expand the colony with all his strength and fight for “territory under the sun.”

Before the outbreak of the First World War in 1913, Germany’s mainland was 540,000 square kilometers, with a population of more than 60 million, and overseas colonies of 2.59 million square kilometers, but they were not the best colonies. They only captured some islands in the Pacific region, East Africa, Some places in West Africa, Qingdao, China, etc., which can be said to be some scraps of the world’s colonies, far from being compared with the old colonial powers of Britain and France.

In order to continue to escalate, Germany and the United Kingdom have a direct conflict of interest, and they have begun to grab territory in regions such as Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and South America.

This moved the core interests of the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom moved away from France and decided to join forces with its old rival France. In 1903, Britain and France signed an agreement of understanding to end conflicts of interest in Morocco, Egypt, and Sudan. Before Germany truly became the number one in the world, they killed him together.

Also in 1903, when Germany formally built the Berlin-Baghdad railway, the First World War was inevitable.

The Berlin-Baghdad Railway was mainly to avoid the Suez Canal controlled by the British. It planned to pass through Constantinople from the inland of Central Europe, then deep into Iraq through Asia Minor, and finally reach the port of the Persian Gulf. In this way, the powerful German army can go straight from Europe to West Asia. With the navy’s port in Tanzania, Germany will unite with the Ottomans to suppress the British Empire, shake the British rule over India, the cornerstone of the world, and cut off the route from London to Cape Town and then to Mumbai. Control of the Mediterranean will also be in vain.

Because the major cities at both ends of this section of the railway all start with the letter B, this section of the railway is also called the 2B railway.

The Germans carefully advanced the entire 2B plan, pretending to be a Turkish company operating a railway line, Osman also quietly cooperated with him, and the British didn’t care about it for a while.

But this 2B was still discovered by the British.

The savvy British figured out that the entire railway could not be profitable. It must have a deeper strategic purpose. The port is also a huge threat to the UK. This 2B is not an ordinary 2B, it must be a far-sighted 2B.

The British were startled in a cold sweat: Damn, I want to stab Laozi in the back. Only Laozi is the only one in this world who is a shit-cutter. How can I be disturbed by others!

Would rather I stir the world, and stop teaching the world to stir me!

French classmates, I’m sorry about what happened in the past. It’s all a misunderstanding. Now that Germany is doing us this way, it also threatens your overseas colonies. Or, let’s kill him together.

Things have developed to this point, Britain, France, and Germany Ottoman can only tear their faces.

The assassination of Grand Duke Ferdinand and his wife was just an excuse for everyone to be angry with each other. At that time, the whole of Europe had already become huge powder kegs. The relationship between the empire and the empire was tense to suffocation. Can be detonated.

The Crown Prince Ferdinand and his wife of the Austro-Hungarian Empire were shot and killed by local youths in Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian Empire declared war on Serbia, and everyone began to stand in line. Germany, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire stood aside, Britain, France, Russia, and Serbia, Belgium, and Japan stood aside and started fighting.

This is how the cruel World War I broke out.

The war potential of the British Empire was completely exploded in World War I. In front of Britain, which had a quarter of the world’s land and population, and had a huge supply of colonial materials, Germany, which had only land warfare advantages and leftover colonies, was slowly bled to death.

I won’t talk about the specific process, or it’s not as thick as a book. In short, after the upgrade of human weapons, the killing was very tragic. In World War I, 65 million people participated in the war, more than 10 million people were killed, 20 million people were injured, and the United Kingdom died. 908,000 people died in France, 1.24 million people died in France, 1.7 million people died in Russia, 1.77 million people died in Germany, and 325,000 people died in Ottoman. These figures do not include civilian deaths and injuries.

The tragic World War I left some sequelae to some countries, like France, when World War II said nothing would be fought, and the dead would be scared. Whoever you love, if you can’t beat Lao Tzu, surrender. You can say that I have no spine, anyway. Don’t give away heads.

After the defeat of the war, Germany suffered extreme retaliation. In November 1918, the “Treaty of Versailles” stipulated that Germany should compensate 226 billion gold marks for war indemnities, plus interest is 269 billion gold marks, which will be paid off in 42 years.

This is the most expensive indemnity in the history of human warfare, equivalent to the price of 96,416 tons of gold. Germany uses tariffs, monopoly taxes on tobacco, alcohol, and food, railway revenues, and industrial and commercial enterprise taxes to fill in this hole.

Germany also returned Alsace and Lorraine to France, North Schleswig to Denmark, West Prussia and Posen Province to Poland, Silesia to Czechoslovakia, Salmedy to Belgium, and Klaipeda To Lithuania, and so on, even the hometown of the Teutonic Knights have been in the hands of Poland.

The overseas colonies were all divided up, leaving nothing behind.

The Nationalist government later had the concept of “German Weaponist” because Germany had no colonies and could not get mines, so it exchanged weapons with China for resources.

Germany also handed over 5,000 cannons, 1,700 aircraft, 150 submarines, all ships, and 150,000 wagons. The United States alone took away more than 500,000 tons of ships.

Germany can no longer own air force and navy, cannot import or export weapons and is only allowed to have 100,000 armies.

France intends to completely dismember Germany in order to avoid its future troubles and let Germany return to the Holy Roman era. At this time, on the Eurasian continent, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire are all over. If Germany is further dismembered, then the whole of Europe will be either France will be unified, or it will be unified by Russia.

The British always want to maintain a European equilibrium. The British were the first to not agree. The United States agreed with the British idea and issued a lot of good people cards, advocating the self-determination of all nations. Only then Germany was able to survive, but it was already alive and deprived. A layer of skin.

In 1923, the Weimar government, which desperately issued money to pay off debts, created terrible inflation. Today, Venezuela’s inflation phenomenon is a little brother in front of Germany at the time. If you go to a bakery to buy bread, the price may increase tenfold. It costs one trillion marks to buy a piece of bread.

I thought the number of “one trillion marks” was wrong until I saw the one trillion marks issued by them at that time, it turned out to be true.

Being oppressed but still retaining strong bones, Germany was finally forced to live out a Hitler.

When Hitler came to power in 1933, just 15 years after the end of the First World War, 6 million people were unemployed in Germany, and 4 million were part-time jobs. Together with their family members, almost 66 million Germans were living on the poverty line.

On the third day after Hitler came to power, he published “A Letter to the German Citizenship”, saying that he would save German peasants and workers and “launch a large-scale all-out assault on unemployment!”

It took only five years. By 1938, Hitler really controlled the unemployment rate in Germany at 1.3%, which was lower than the 1.89% in the United States and 8.1% in the United Kingdom.

Why Hitler was able to obtain such a high level of support in Germany is an important reason to do a good job in the economy.

In 1933, Hitler was in Germany and Roosevelt came to power in the United States at the same time. In fact, their methods of saving the economy were roughly the same, but I don’t know why no one mentioned it, as if it had tarnished Roosevelt’s reputation.

On the whole, the governments on both sides strongly intervened in the market economy and saved the entire country.

Roosevelt rectified the banking industry and devalued the U.S. dollar. Hitler encouraged exports and allowed bartering of goods; Roosevelt engaged in large infrastructure to create jobs, Hitler also engaged in large infrastructure to create jobs; Roosevelt focused on welfare policies, and Hitler also promoted the welfare of the whole people.

On the whole, the governments on both sides strongly intervened in the market economy and saved the entire country.

Roosevelt rectified the banking industry and devalued the U.S. dollar. Hitler encouraged exports and allowed bartering of goods; Roosevelt engaged in large infrastructure to create jobs, Hitler also engaged in large infrastructure to create jobs; Roosevelt focused on welfare policies, and Hitler also promoted the welfare of the whole people.

Hitler shovels soil for the new highway

Please note that the United States itself does not only engage in a free economy anytime and anywhere, and uses whatever is good. The argument we hear now is that “as long as it is not a free economy, it is an evil country” because they are now powerful and can crush development. In China, it is good for them to engage in a free economy. When others promote something, it depends on their interests, so as not to be led by the nose.

Unlike Roosevelt, Hitler was more difficult and his living environment was worse.

So Germany has produced some very extreme phenomena to meet the needs of survival.

In the first wave of Germany, everyone was able to work through large-scale projects and industrial investment, but after these were completed, Germany was still unable to export. He did not have a colony and could not sell things. It locked the ceiling and could only move toward expansion. The road is to solve the problems of employment and industrial overcapacity through the development of the military industry.

The question is, why does Germany only develop military industries and not other profitable industries?

Because Hitler wanted to curb hyperinflation in the early days of Hitler’s coming to power, his economic staff and former Dresden Bank President Schacht suggested that a closed economy should be established, and the country’s land and industrial products would be bound by the “land rent mark” to solve inflation. problem.

This economic method was only a temporary stopgap and was used to get rid of the economic crisis. In 1936, Schacht suggested that it should be stopped, but Hitler became addicted and found it very good. Germany is developing rapidly and can continue.

Hitler wanted to close the economy to the end. He wanted to bring Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia, and Poland into this system, and seize their military, oil, military, ore, coal, and iron, so that Germany would not have to worry about the economic crisis, but could also quickly grow.

As a result, Germany’s funds and resources all fell to the military field. In 1936, German armaments began to catch up with Britain and France. By 1938, British military expenditures accounted for 4% of GDP, the United States accounted for 1%, and Germany accounted for total fiscal expenditure. For 50% of the budget, military expenditures are more than those of the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain, and France combined. By 1939, Germany, which had annexed Austria and Czechoslovakia (jack slow fuck), was fully armed and became the world’s largest military power.

Germany has also begun to have a morbid phenomenon of killing Jews. In essence, there is no cash flow and a virtuous economic cycle. They want to grab a hand and kill people if they rob it.

The Jews also learned their lessons after World War II and began to enter the political and media fields. By deeply binding the United States, they became a special group of people in the United States today. Before World War II, Jews did not know the importance of controlling politics and the media.

Why did Germany start a war? It is his military capacity that is full and there is overcapacity, so he can only expand abroad, solve the market and resources through aggression, and prevent the country from returning to the situation of high unemployment.

If Germany had colonies like Britain and France that spread all over the world, and if Germany had the huge land and consumer market of the United States, Germany would not launch a war easily.

Only by launching a war can Hitler ensure that the factory will survive, the workers will not be laid off, and the living standards of the Germans will not decline. From the very beginning, Hitler’s economic development path made him only make this choice.

It is Germany’s deformed economic form that has turned it into a country that relies on war to support the war.

The economic form of Germany originated from his failure to conquer world colonies before World War I, and from the harsh exploitation after the defeat, which gave Germany a huge reactionary force.

The rise of Germany before the Second World War is also related to the amount of assistance from the United States. In addition, the Soviet industry was actually raised by the United States alone. However, this matter is also very complicated to talk about. I will only mention it briefly here and will not expand it in detail.

There are no natural lunatics in the world. If a person is mad and a country is mad, there must be a reason.

Embarking on Germany with military industry as its pillar industry finally detonated World War II.

The rest of the matter will not be described. This article only discusses the causes of the two world wars.

According to habit, we have to find the laws of some things from historical data.

The rulers of this world have only been the United Kingdom and the United States in the past few hundred years.

Before the rise of the Soviet Union, Germany was the first to challenge the hegemony of Britain and the United States. The second was the Soviet Union’s turn. Now, it is China’s turn.

When Germany and the Soviet Union challenged the Anglo-American hegemony, they all chose the internal circular economy without exception. Germany chose a closed economy, and the Soviet Union chose economic mutual exchange.

Of course, this is the last resort of the two countries. Britain and the United States have locked up the external channels of the two countries. They have to engage in internal circulation. Moreover, the internal circulation develops very fast when it is effective. It is easy to get confused and addicted. It is not easy to fade, and it is easy to crash if handled carelessly.

If you look back at the breaks between Germany and the Soviet Union against Britain and the United States, you will find that China’s breaks today are different.

One is that China is determined not to engage in a single internal cycle, but to embrace the world, to engage in both internal and external cycles, and to resolutely not decouple from the world, unlike Germany, which cannot produce things to sell overseas, nor does it make things like the Soviet Union did. The products circulate internally, and the products produced by the Chinese industry must be sold to the domestic market as well as to the international market.

China not only stays out of touch with the world but also keeps in touch with the world.

The second is that China’s destruction of the Belt and Road Initiative today is a bit similar to that of Germany’s 2B railway destruction in the United Kingdom?

Yes, it’s just a little bit like, because China is taking the road of common prosperity for all the people all over the world and is to be a “community with a shared future for mankind.” China does not engage in the bloody colonialism of the capitalist world. People have taken another new path of development, helping the developing countries of the Belt and Road in infrastructure construction, sharing dividends together, mutual benefit, and exploring new ways to treat the world.

China is trying to rise peacefully, not the previous method of ruling the world by plunder, colonization, and bloody violence.

In addition, we must also learn from the failure of Germany and the Soviet Union to challenge the British and American hegemony. The United States, like the United Kingdom at the beginning, has vast global resources. They can suck blood from the world and consume every country that challenges them. They are fighting for war and consumption. We should neither be arrogant nor arrogant. We should wait calmly for the opportunity and don’t be dragged into the water easily.

Looking back at the history of the rise of Germany and the two world wars that Germany detonated, we do not want to criticize or attack whom, but to draw nourishment from history and find an effective path for the peaceful development of mankind and the Chinese people. The correct and correct way to avoid huge social disasters every time a great power transfers and collides.

This is the way we study history, and it is also the purpose of our study of history.